Figure 2: Communications Physics

Fig. 2

From: Dynamical equilibration across a quenched phase transition in a trapped quantum gas

Fig. 2

Dynamical crossing of the BEC phase transition. We show here a 3D visualisation of characteristic density profiles of the highest-occupied (Penrose–Onsager) mode during the condensation process, for the case of quench time τR = 84 ms. Depicted images show respectively snapshots at times t corresponding to a the time t = 0 (when μ = 0), and bf times t = 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32 ms, respectively. Above the transition temperature (a, b), we see low-amplitude random density fluctuations (yellow) within our entire simulation grid. As the density begins to condense in real space, reflecting the underlying elongated trap geometry, the system breaks its symmetry spontaneously (c, d), leading to the appearance of defects (purple), which evolve within a growing (green) high-density region (e,f), signalling the emergence of a highly fluctuating condensate. Such defects undergo their own evolution dynamics, violently perturbed by interactions with other defects (see Supplementary Fig. 3 and Supplementary Movie 3)