a NMR-based metabolome analyses of plasma collected from the inferior vena cava of WT and Nrf2-KO mice in GC and FL groups. b Plots for PCA applied to NMR-based metabolome analyses of plasma from WT and Nrf2-KO mice in GC and FL groups. Dots represent individual animals. c–e Plasma levels of glycerol (c), glycine (d), and succinate (e) in WT and Nrf2-KO mice in GC and FL groups. Data are presented as mean, and dots represent individual animals. n = 6 for GC_WT, FL_WT and GC_KO, and n = 5 for FL_KO. One-way ANOVA with Tukey–Kramer test. f–h Age-distribution of plasma levels of glycerol (f), glycine (g), and succinate (h) in a human cohort of the ToMMo study (data replotted from ref. 22). Center line, median; box limits, upper and lower quartiles; whiskers, 1.5× interquartile range; points, outliers. P values were calculated with Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. n = 545 (20–40 age) and 955 (60–80 age) for (f, g). n = 543 (20–40 age) and 948 (60–80 age) for (h). i Identification of ageing-associated metabolites from space mouse experiment and the ToMMo human cohort study.