Sampling framework for B. pseudomallei isolates from the case control study. a The chart shows the number of clinical and environmental isolates from patients and/or household water supplies of cases (patients with melioidosis) and controls (patients with non-infectious conditions admitted during the same period). b Temporal distribution of environmental and disease isolates in the discovery dataset collected from June 2010 to January 2012. With the exception of months with no house visits, the number of monthly clinical and environmental samples collected were positively correlated (linear regression, adjusted R-square = 0.259, p value = 0.026). c Spatial and temporal distribution of environmental and disease isolates in the validation dataset from the public database.