Table 2 Queen larval host plant abundance predicts viceroy chemical defense

From: Mimicry in viceroy butterflies is dependent on abundance of the model queen butterfly

  Compound Parameter estimate df F p
Nonvolatiles Total nonvolatile phenolics −0.552 61 142.611 <0.0001
  Salicin −0.055 6.02 19.45 0.0045
  Salicortin −0.134 6.011 30.696 0.0015
  Tremulacin −0.363 62 134.926 <0.0001
Volatiles Total volatile phenolics −0.221 6.009 380.08 <0.0001
  Salicylaldehyde −0.173 6.011 341.74 <0.0001
  Benzaldehyde −0.049 62 64.776 <0.0001
  1. Values are results of linear mixed-models testing the effect of white twinevine abundance on viceroy phenolic chemical defenses