Fig. 2 | Communications Biology

Fig. 2

From: Population genomic analyses of the chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L., provide insights into its domestication process

Fig. 2

Population genetic structure in T. cacao. a The ten main genetic clusters can be recovered (A.1), although further structure (11 clusters) seems to be meaningful given that a considerable number of admixed individuals present the ancestry from a subset of Amelonado ancestry (A. 2). Color bars on top of the admixed individuals show our suggested grouping for the hybrids. b Map of Central and South America showing the median coordinate locations for the origin of samples from each population sampled in this work (with the exception of Admixed). c MDS showing a gradient of differentiation form the West to the East side of the Amazon (PC2) and a major separation of the Criollo group that corresponds to the Mesoamerican domesticated group (PC1). d Significant decay of genetic diversity (π) for the species along PC2 is supportive of the origin of the species being in the western side of the Amazon Basin (Criollo is excluded, model: π group + ε, p < 2E-16, r2 = 0.19). e All ten population genetic groups that have been described for the species are highly differentiated, with Criollo presenting a larger average FST when compared against all the other groups

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