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A silver catalyst activated by stacking faults for the hydrogen evolution reaction

Abstract

Finding highly active and low-cost catalysts is a crucial endeavour to harvest clean hydrogen via electrochemical water splitting. Currently, the best catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction is based on metallic platinum whose high price severely restricts large-scale application. Here we report a silver catalyst with superior activity and durability in an acid medium that outperforms commercial platinum on carbon, especially under high applied voltages. We adopt a physical technique—laser ablation in liquid—to generate a high density of stacking faults in silver nanoparticles. We find that the stacking faults can cause a low coordination number and high tensile strain, which jointly improve the adsorption energy and transform the non-active silver into a highly active catalyst. In light of the high activity, conductivity, durability and low price, the silver catalyst can serve as a promising alternative to commercial platinum on carbon for industrial application.

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Fig. 1: Preparation and characterization of L-Ag NPs.
Fig. 2: HER activity and durability in Ar-saturated 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte.
Fig. 3: Calculations on the CNs of L-Ag, S-Ag and T-Ag catalysts.
Fig. 4: Analysis of the tensile strain in L-Ag.
Fig. 5: Theoretical calculations for the effect of CN and tensile strain on the hydrogen adsorption Gibbs free energy.

Data availability

The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 51871160, 51671141, 51471115). The authors thank the BL14W1 beam line of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility for synchrotron beam time and Y. L. Liang from Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) for XAS measurements. The authors thank R. C. Luo from the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) for TEM measurements.

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Contributions

X.-W.D. designed the project. Z.L. and Y.F. performed the experiment under the direction of X.-W.D. Z.L. and X.-WD. performed the experimental data analysis. J.-Y.F. and C.-K.D. performed the theoretical calculation. Z.L. and H.L. conducted the XAS test and analysed the data. Z.L. and X.-W.D. wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hui Liu or Xi-Wen Du.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–54, Tables 1–3 and references.

Supplementary Dataset 1

Atomic coordinates of the optimized computational models.

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Li, Z., Fu, JY., Feng, Y. et al. A silver catalyst activated by stacking faults for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Nat Catal 2, 1107–1114 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-019-0365-9

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