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Strain relaxation and multidentate anchoring in n-type perovskite transistors and logic circuits

Abstract

The engineering of tin halide perovskites has led to the development of p-type transistors with field-effect mobilities of over 70 cm2 V−1 s−1. However, due to their background hole doping, these perovskites are not suitable for n-type transistors. Ambipolar lead halide perovskites are potential candidates, but their defective nature limits electron mobilities to around 3–4 cm2 V−1 s−1, which makes the development of all-perovskite logic circuits challenging. Here we report formamidinium lead iodide perovskite n-type transistors with field-effect mobilities of up to 33 cm2 V−1 s−1 measured in continuous bias mode. This is achieved through strain relaxation of the perovskite lattice using a methylammonium chloride additive, followed by suppression of undercoordinated lead through tetramethylammonium fluoride multidentate anchoring. Our approach stabilizes the alpha phase, balances strain and improves surface morphology, crystallinity and orientation. It also enables low-defect perovskite–dielectric interfaces. We use the transistors to fabricate unipolar inverters and eleven-stage ring oscillators.

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Fig. 1: Managing surface morphology, crystallinity and crystal orientation.
Fig. 2: Strain relaxation and multidentate anchoring.
Fig. 3: The electrical performance and stability of n-channel T-FAPbI3 perovskite TFTs.
Fig. 4: All-perovskite unipolar inverter and 11-stage ring oscillator.

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Data availability

Source data are provided with this paper. Additional data related to this work are available via figshare at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.25505182 (ref. 50).

Code availability

All codes (software) used in the calculation and visualization are publicly available and the condition of their use in the publication is an appropriate citation.

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Acknowledgements

A.R.b.M.Y. and R.N.B. thank the Korea Research Foundation for its support through Creative Challenge Research Base Support, funded through grant no. 4.0024709.01. H.U. acknowledges the University of Exeter’s Advanced Research Computing facilities. The theoretical research was carried out using the equipment of the shared research facilities of HPC computing resources at Lomonosov Moscow State University. This research was funded by the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University Researchers, Supporting Project no. PNURSP2024R1, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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A.R.b.M.Y., M.V., R.N.B. and M.K.N. conceived and designed the project. M.V., M.K.N. and A.R.b.M.Y. supervised the project and led the collaboration efforts. R.N.B., A.S., A.V. and M.T. characterized the materials. V.P. performed the XRD studies. L.P.Z. and G.C.V. performed the NMR measurements and analysis. K.A. conducted the numerical simulations in perovskite diodes. R.N.B. and T.A. completed the electrical device fabrication, performed the luminescence measurements and conducted the experimental validation. J.W. and X.B. performed depth XPS and GIWAXS studies. O.A.S., M.A.S. and H.U. performed the theoretical calculations. M.V. wrote the manuscript. M.K.N. and A.R.b.M.Y. edited the manuscript. All the authors participated in the discussion and analysis of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ravindra Naik Bukke, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Maria Vasilopoulou or Abd. Rashid bin Mohd Yusoff.

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Nature Electronics thanks Yen-Hung Lin and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figs. 1–22, Tables 1–9, Note 1 and References.

Supplementary Video 1

Measurements of transistor output characteristics.

Supplementary Video 2

Measurement apparatus and transistor performance.

Supplementary Data 1

Raw data for NMR measurements.

Supplementary Data 2

Data from theoretical calculations.

Source data

Source Data Fig. 1

Data for X-ray diffraction patterns.

Source Data Fig. 2

Data for X-ray photoelectron spectra.

Source Data Fig. 3

Data of the transistor electrical measurements.

Source Data Fig. 4

Data of electrical performance of inverter and ring oscillator.

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Bukke, R.N., Syzgantseva, O.A., A. Syzgantseva, M. et al. Strain relaxation and multidentate anchoring in n-type perovskite transistors and logic circuits. Nat Electron 7, 444–453 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-024-01165-5

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