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Graphene charge-injection photodetectors


Charge-coupled devices are widely used imaging technologies. However, their speed is limited due to the complex readout process, which involves sequential charge transfer between wells, and their spectral bandwidth is limited due to the absorption limitations of silicon. Here we report graphene charge-injection photodetectors. The devices have a deep-depletion silicon well for charge integration, single-layer graphene for non-destructive direct readout and multilayer graphene for infrared photocharge injection. The photodetectors offer broadband imaging from ultraviolet (around 375 nm) to mid-infrared (around 3.8 μm), a conversion gain of 700 pA per electron, a responsivity above 0.1 A W−1 in the infrared region and a fast response time under 1 μs.

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Fig. 1: Device structure and band diagram of GCI.
Fig. 2: Characterization of GCI.
Fig. 3: Characterization of GCI in the IR range.

Data availability

Source data are provided with this paper. The data that support the other findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.


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We thank C. Jin and X. Zhang for help on the NIR test and L. Chen and H. Zhu for help on the MIR test. We thank E. Li, W. Yin, D. Dai, W. Chen, K. Huang, Z. Tan, H. Shen, C. Li, S. Song, Q. Xiong and T. Low for valuable discussions. Y.X. acknowledges the support of this work by NSFC (grant nos.92164106, 61874094, 62090030 and 52090030); the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (K20200060 and 2021FZZX001-17); ZJU Micro-Nano Fabrication Center.

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Authors and Affiliations



Y.X., H.G. and X.D. designed the research. Y.X., H.G., W. L. and J.L. designed the experiment. L.P. and C.G. synthesized the MLG and developed the transfer methods. K.L. synthesized the SLG. Y.X., W.L., J.L., C.L. and Y.L. fabricated the devices and carried out the measurements. Y.X., L. Liu and L. Li assisted in part of the experiment. Y.X., H.G., P.W., S.C.B., K.S., Z.S., T.H. and B.Y. helped improve the manuscript. Y.X., X.W., C.G., B.Y., and X.D. guided the project. All the authors contributed to interpreting the data and writing the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yang Xu, Xiaomu Wang, Chao Gao, Bin Yu or Xiangfeng Duan.

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Nature Electronics thanks Lukas Mennel and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Text 1–10, Figs. 1–16 and Table 1.

Supplementary Data

Data for Supplementary Figs. 1, 4–11 and 16.

Supplementary Data

Data for Supplementary Fig. 15.

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Statistical source data.

Source Data Fig. 3

Statistical source data.

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Liu, W., Lv, J., Peng, L. et al. Graphene charge-injection photodetectors. Nat Electron 5, 281–288 (2022).

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