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Perovskite light-emitting diodes

Abstract

Light-emitting diodes based on halide perovskites have undergone rapid development in recent years and can now offer external quantum efficiencies of over 23%. However, the practical application of such devices is still limited by a number of factors, including the poor efficiency of blue-emitting devices, difficulty in accessing emission wavelengths above 800 nm, a decrease in external quantum efficiency at high current density, a lack of understanding of the effect of the electric field on mobile ions present in the perovskite materials, and short device lifetimes. Here we review the development of perovskite light-emitting diodes. We examine the key challenges involved in creating efficient and stable devices, and consider methods to alleviate the poor efficiency of blue-emitting devices, leverage emission in the long infrared region and create spin-polarized light-emitting diodes.

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Fig. 1: Peak EQE of state-of-the-art PeLEDs.
Fig. 2: Recombination in low-dimensional perovskites.
Fig. 3: Emission from perovskite NCs.
Fig. 4: Photon-recycling and EQE roll-off in PeLEDs.
Fig. 5: Device lifetimes of blue, green, orange, red and NIR LEDs.

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Acknowledgements

A.F. acknowledges Ausschuss für Forschungsfragen (AFF) of the University of Konstanz for Young Scholar Fund and P. Heremans (imec) for valuable inputs and discussions. M.A.-J. acknowledges the Royal Society (RGS\R1\211068), European Commission under the Horizon 2020 (ERA-NET ACT 2021, NEXTCCUS project), Cambridge Materials Limited, Wolfson College, University of Cambridge and EPSRC for funding and technical support. S.C. and H.J.B. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement no. 834431) and the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MAT2017-88821-R and CEX2019-000919-M). F.D. acknowledges financial support from the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant agreement no. 852084—TWIST) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Emmy Noether Program (project 387651688).

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A.F. and M.V. conceived the idea and wrote the first version of the manuscript. A.F. drew the figures. M.K.G. and D.N.C. contributed to the section on nanocrystals. M.A.-J. contributed to the section on spectral stability. W.T. wrote the section on ion migration. F.D. contributed to the section on light outcoupling. S.-H.C. contributed to data collection. A.B.R.M.Y. contributed to the discussions on spin-LEDs, Rashba splitting and spin–orbit coupling. All authors contributed to manuscript writing and subsequent corrections. H.J.B. supervised the manuscript contents and writing, and contributed to the Outlook section.

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Correspondence to Azhar Fakharuddin.

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Nature Electronics thanks Tae-Woo Lee and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Fakharuddin, A., Gangishetty, M.K., Abdi-Jalebi, M. et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes. Nat Electron 5, 203–216 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-022-00745-7

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