Digital electronics are ubiquitous in the modern world, but analogue electronics also play a crucial role in many devices and applications. Analogue circuits are typically manufactured using silicon as the active material. However, the desire for improved performance, new devices and flexible integration has—as for their digital counterparts—led to research into alternative materials, including the use of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we show that operational amplifiers—a basic building block of analogue electronics—can be created using the 2D semiconductor molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the active material. The device is capable of stable operation with good performance, and we demonstrate its use in feedback circuits including inverting amplifiers, integrators, log amplifiers and transimpedance amplifiers. We also show that our 2D platform can be used to monolithically integrate an analogue signal preconditioning circuit with a MoS2 photodetector.
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The data that support the plots within this paper and other findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
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We thank A.J. Molina-Mendoza for technical assistance and N. Schaefer and J.A. Garrido for providing a polyimide substrate. We acknowledge financial support by the European Union (grant agreements 785219 Graphene Flagship, 796388 ECOMAT and 828901 ORIGENAL), the Austrian Science Fund FWF (START Y 539-N16) and the Italian MIUR (FIVE 2D).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Polyushkin, D.K., Wachter, S., Mennel, L. et al. Analogue two-dimensional semiconductor electronics. Nat Electron 3, 486–491 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-0460-6