a, AFM image of the 2D nanosheet. The inset shows a height profile recorded at the location indicated by the black line. b, Low-resolution TEM image of an ITO nanosheet printed onto a TEM grid. The sheet is highly translucent in appearance and contains few metallic inclusions. These inclusions can be removed for samples used for device fabrication and other characterizations during the sample work-up procedures described in the Methods. The 2D ITO sheet conformally adhered to the TEM grid and is devoid of wrinkles, as a carbon grid was used that featured a continuous carbon membrane (that is, the 2D sheet is not free-standing). c, HRTEM image of the optimized 2D ITO nanosheet. The colour code highlights the crystal orientation based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) image shown in the lower right inset. The upper left inset shows a magnified view of the lattice pattern and the upper right image shows a dark-field image of the region of interest. d, HRTEM image of a 2D sheet exfoliated from a parent alloy containing excessive Sn, showing an amorphous structure with occasional crystalline sections. The upper right inset shows an HRTEM dark-field image of the region of interest, while the lower right inset shows the FFT image. e,f, Cross-sectional TEM images of monolayer (e) and bilayer (f) ITO, with the insets featuring a magnified view, showing one and two printed layers.