Article | Published:

Simultaneous synthesis and integration of two-dimensional electronic components

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as transition metal chalcogenides can be used to create different components of electronic devices, including semiconducting channels and metallic electrodes and interconnects. However, devices are typically fabricated using a step-by-step process that can introduce defects and impurities, leading to a reduction in device performance. Here we show that 2D electronic components can be chemically synthesized and integrated simultaneously in a single step, creating 2D devices in which each component in the active layer is connected via covalent bonds instead of physical interfaces. The approach involves the phase-patterned growth of atomic layers, and, using 2D molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) as the active material, we show that it can be used to construct high-performance field-effect transistors (FETs) and arrays of logic devices. We also use the technique to construct FETs with ultrashort gate lengths, bilayered FETs with vertical interconnections and flexible devices.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

References

  1. 1.

    Moore, G. E. Cramming more components onto integrated circuits. Electronics 38, 114–117 (1965).

  2. 2.

    Packan, P. A. Pushing the limits. Science 285, 2079–2081 (1999).

  3. 3.

    Lundstrom, M. Moore’s law forever? Science 299, 210–211 (2003).

  4. 4.

    Lauhon, L. J., Gudiksen, M. S., Wang, D. & Lieber, C. M. Epitaxial core–shell and core–multishell nanowire heterostructures. Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).

  5. 5.

    Kong, J., Soh, H. T., Cassell, A. M., Quate, C. F. & Dai, H. Synthesis of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes on patterned silicon wafers. Nature 395, 878–881 (1998).

  6. 6.

    Wang, Q. H., Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Kis, A., Coleman, J. N. & Strano, M. S. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).

  7. 7.

    Ionescu, A. M. & Riel, H. Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy-efficient electronic switches. Nature 479, 329–337 (2011).

  8. 8.

    Desai, S. B. et al. MoS2 transistors with 1-nanometer gate lengths. Science 354, 99–102 (2016).

  9. 9.

    Qiu, C. et al. Scaling carbon nanotube complementary transistors to 5-nm gate lengths. Science 355, 271–276 (2017).

  10. 10.

    Shulaker, M. et al. Three-dimensional integration of nanotechnologies for computing and data storage on a single chip. Nature 547, 74–78 (2017).

  11. 11.

    Cho, S. et al. Phase patterning for ohmic homojunction contact in MoTe2. Science 349, 625–628 (2015).

  12. 12.

    Sung, J. H. et al. Coplanar semiconductor–metal circuitry defined on few-layer MoTe2 via polymorphic heteroepitaxy. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 1064–1070 (2017).

  13. 13.

    Huang, L., Zeng, Z. & Zhang, H. Metal dichalcogenide nanosheets: preparation, properties and applications. Chem. Soc. Rev. 42, 1934–1946 (2013).

  14. 14.

    Xu, M., Liang, T., Shi, M. & Chen, H. Graphene-like two-dimensional materials. Chem. Rev. 113, 3766–3798 (2013).

  15. 15.

    Voiry, D., Mohite, A. & Chhowalla, M. Phase engineering of transition metal dichalcogenides. Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2702–2712 (2015).

  16. 16.

    Zhou, L. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality uniform few-layer MoTe2. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 11892–11895 (2015).

  17. 17.

    Zhou, L. et al. Synthesis of high-quality large-area homogenous 1T′ MoTe2 from chemical vapor deposition. Adv. Mater. 28, 9526–9531 (2016).

  18. 18.

    Wu, J. et al. High electron mobility and quantum oscillations in non-encapsulated ultrathin semiconducting Bi2O2Se. Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 530–534 (2017).

  19. 19.

    Wu, Y. et al. Field-effect transistors made from solution-grown two-dimensional tellurene. Nat. Electron. 1, 228–236 (2018).

  20. 20.

    Hema, C. P. et al. High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors. ACS Nano 9, 10402–10410 (2015).

  21. 21.

    Bolshakov, P. et al. Improvement in top-gate MoS2 transistor performance due to high quality backside Al2O3 layer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 032110 (2017).

  22. 22.

    Chu, P. et al. Locally gated SnS2/hBN thin film transistors with a broadband photoresponse. Sci. Rep. 8, 10585 (2018).

  23. 23.

    Liu, E. et al. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors. Nat. Commun. 9, 372–377 (2016).

  24. 24.

    Larentis, S. et al. Reconfigurable complementary monolayer MoTe2 field-effect transistors for integrated circuits. ACS Nano 11, 4832–4839 (2017).

  25. 25.

    Zhang, E. et al. Tunable ambipolar polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on high-anisotropy ReSe2 nanosheets. ACS Nano 10, 8067–8077 (2016).

  26. 26.

    Nathan, Y. et al. Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current. Nat. Photon. 9, 247–252 (2015).

  27. 27.

    Young, C. et al. Evaluation of few-layer MoS2 transistors with a top gate and HfO2 dielectric. ECS Trans. 75, 153–162 (2016).

  28. 28.

    Mleczko, M. et al. HfSe2 and ZrSe2: two-dimensional semiconductors with native high-k oxides. Sci. Adv. 3, 1700481 (2017).

  29. 29.

    Nie, X. et al. Impact of metal contacts on the performance of multilayer HfS2 field-effect transistors. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 26996–27003 (2017).

  30. 30.

    Yu, L. et al. Enhancement-mode single-layer CVD MoS2 FET technology for digital electronics. Proc. IEDM 15, 835–838 (2015).

  31. 31.

    Lin, Y. M. et al. 100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene. Science 327, 662 (2010).

  32. 32.

    Lu, Z. et al. Universal transfer and stacking of chemical vapor deposition grown two-dimensional atomic layers with water-soluble polymer mediator. ACS Nano 10, 5237–5242 (2016).

  33. 33.

    Ciarrocchi, A., Avsar, A., Ovchinnikov, D. & Kis, A. Thickness-modulated metal-to-semiconductor transformation in a transition metal dichalcogenide. Nat. Commun. 9, 919 (2018).

  34. 34.

    Jiao, L. et al. Creation of nanostructures with poly(methyl methacrylate)-mediated nanotransfer printing. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 12612–12613 (2008).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (grants nos. 21875127, 21573125, 51522212, 51421002, 51672307, 61574083 and 61434001), the Research Fund from Beijing Innovation Center for Future Chip, Beijing Municipal Science & Technology Commission (no. Z161100002116030), Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program, National Key R&D Program (grant no. 2016YFA0200400), the National Basic Research Program (grants nos. 2014CB921002 and 2015CB352101), the Independent Research Program of Tsinghua University (grant no. 2014Z01006), Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (grant no. JCYJ20150831192224146) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Science (grant no. XDB 07030200). The authors thank J. Zhang and S. Zhang for providing carbon nanotube array samples. The authors thank C. Li and H. Chen for performing tensile tests. The authors thank L. Zhou for the discussion on the growth of MoTe2.

Author information

L.Y.J. and T.-L.R. co-supervised the study. L.Y.J. and Q.Z. conceived the ideas. Q.Z., X.-F.W., S.-H.S. and Q.L. performed the experiments. L.G., X.Y.Z., C.-P.Y. and X.Z.L. performed STEM measurements and analysis. H.Y.L. performed SEM and GIXRD measurements and analysis. J.Y.Z. performed EBL fabrications. L.Y.J., Q.Z., T.-L.R. and X.-F.W. co-wrote the manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Correspondence to Tian-Ling Ren or Liying Jiao.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Methods 1–5, Supplementary Notes 1–4, Supplementary Tables 1–2 and Supplementary Figs. 1–20.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Further reading

Fig. 1: Comparison of our proposed circuit construction approach with a traditional approach.
Fig. 2: Characterizations of 2H/1T′ MoTe2 heterophase junctions.
Fig. 3: Comparisons of the electrical performances of chemically synthesized FETs and traditional fabricated FETs.
Fig. 4: Chemically synthesized device array.
Fig. 5: Potential applications.