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Terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems

Abstract

The field of terahertz integrated technology has undergone significant development in the past ten years. This has included work on different substrate technologies such as III–V semiconductors and silicon, work on field-effect transistor devices and heterojunction bipolar devices, and work on both fully electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems. While approaches in electronic and photonics can often seem distinct, techniques have blended in the terahertz frequency range and many emerging systems can be classified as photonics-inspired or hybrid. Here, we review the development of terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems, examining, in particular, advances that deliver important functionalities for applications in communication, sensing and imaging. Many of the advances in integrated systems have emerged, not from improvements in single devices, but rather from new architectures that are multifunctional and reconfigurable and break the trade-offs of classical approaches to electronic system design. We thus focus on these approaches to capture the diversity of techniques and methodologies in the field.

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Fig. 1: Integrated THz systems and the technology landscape.
Fig. 2: High-frequency limits of solid-state devices and THz signal generation.
Fig. 3: THz sources and systems in silicon.
Fig. 4: THz sensors and receivers in silicon.
Fig. 5: Photonics-inspired passive and active THz components.
Fig. 6: Electronic–photonic hybrid THz systems.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research, the Army Research Office, the W. M. Keck Foundation, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) Japan and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) for funding and all the group members of technical inputs.

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Sengupta, K., Nagatsuma, T. & Mittleman, D.M. Terahertz integrated electronic and hybrid electronic–photonic systems. Nat Electron 1, 622–635 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-018-0173-2

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