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Single-crystalline layered metal-halide perovskite nanowires for ultrasensitive photodetectors

Abstract

Metal-halide perovskites have long carrier diffusion lengths, low trap densities and high carrier mobilities, and are therefore of value in the development of photovoltaics and light-emitting diodes. However, the presence of thermally activated carriers in the materials leads to high noise levels, which limits their photodetection capabilities. Here, we show that ultrasensitive photodetectors can be created from single-crystalline nanowire arrays of layered metal-halide perovskites. A series of nanowires was fabricated in which layer-by-layer self-organization of insulating organic cations and conductive inorganic frameworks, along the nanowire length, creates high resistance in the interior of the crystals and high conductivity at the edges of the crystals. Using these structures, high-performance photodetection was achieved with responsivities exceeding 1.5 × 104 A W−1 and detectivities exceeding 7 × 1015 jones. Our state-of-the-art device performance originates from a combination of efficient free-carrier edge conduction and resistive hopping barriers in the layered perovskites.

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Fig. 1: Schematics of 2D-perovskite photodetectors.
Fig. 2: Single-crystalline 2D-perovskite nanowires with free-carrier generation at layer edges.
Fig. 3: Photodetector performance of single-crystalline nanowire arrays.
Fig. 4: Transient absorption for 2D-perovskite single-crystalline nanowire arrays.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation (21703268, 21633014), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (2182081), and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China (2017YFA0204504).

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Authors

Contributions

J.F., C.G., Yuchen W., L.J. and X.Z. initiated the research and designed the experiments; J.F. and H.G. prepared layered-perovskite nanowire arrays; J.F. performed material characterizations, device fabrication and measurements; J.F., W.W. and Y.G. performed the confocal PL mapping and power-dependent PL characterizations to confirm the edge states; Yishi W. carried out transient absorption measurements under the guidance of H.F.; B.Z. performed wettability simulation. J.F., C.G., Yuchen W., L.J. and X.Z. analysed data; J.F., C.G. and Yuchen W. wrote the manuscript. C.G. and X.Z. provided insights into the physical mechanisms. Yuchen W. and X.Z. guided the work. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yuchen Wu, Hongbing Fu or Xiang Zhang.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Notes 1–6, Supplementary Figures 1–32 and Supplementary Tables 1–3

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Feng, J., Gong, C., Gao, H. et al. Single-crystalline layered metal-halide perovskite nanowires for ultrasensitive photodetectors. Nat Electron 1, 404–410 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-018-0101-5

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