The reliable production of two-dimensional (2D) crystals is essential for the development of new technologies based on 2D materials. However, current synthesis methods suffer from a variety of drawbacks, including limitations in crystal size and stability. Here, we report the fabrication of large-area, high-quality 2D tellurium (tellurene) using a substrate-free solution process. Our approach can create crystals with process-tunable thickness, from a monolayer to tens of nanometres, and with lateral sizes of up to 100 µm. The chiral-chain van der Waals structure of tellurene gives rise to strong in-plane anisotropic properties and large thickness-dependent shifts in Raman vibrational modes, which is not observed in other 2D layered materials. We also fabricate tellurene field-effect transistors, which exhibit air-stable performance at room temperature for over two months, on/off ratios on the order of 106, and field-effect mobilities of about 700 cm2 V−1 s−1. Furthermore, by scaling down the channel length and integrating with high-k dielectrics, transistors with a significant on-state current density of 1 A mm−1 are demonstrated.
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W.Z.W. acknowledges the College of Engineering and School of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University for startup support. W.Z.W. was partially supported by a grant from the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) Junior Faculty Enhancement Award Program. Part of the solution synthesis work was supported by the National Science Foundation (grant no. CMMI-1663214). P.D.Y. was supported by the NSF/AFOSR 2DARE Program, ARO and SRC. Q.W. and M.J.K. were supported by the Center for Low Energy Systems Technology (LEAST) and the South West Academy of Nanoelectronics (SWAN). Y.L. acknowledges support from Resnick Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship at Caltech, and startup support from UT Austin. Y.L. and W.A.G. were supported as part of the Computational Materials Sciences Program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (award no. DE-SC00014607). This work used the computational resources of NREL (sponsored by DOE EERE), XSEDE (NSF ACI-1053575), NERSC (DOE DE-AC02-05CH11231) and the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at UT Austin. The authors thank F. Fan for discussions.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Wang, Y., Qiu, G., Wang, R. et al. Field-effect transistors made from solution-grown two-dimensional tellurene. Nat Electron 1, 228–236 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-018-0058-4
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