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Sustainable skies and the Earth–space environment

The rapid launch of hundreds of thousands of satellites into low Earth orbit will significantly alter our view of the sky and raise concerns about the sustainability of Earth’s orbital space. A new framework for sustainable space development must balance technological advancement, protection of space environments and our capacity to explore the Universe.

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Fig. 1: Projections of space objects onto Earth.


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Authors and Affiliations



A.W. led the author team, conceived the article framework, drafted parts of the manuscript and created Box 1. A.B. drafted parts of the manuscript and conducted the simulations to produce Fig. 1. G.R. and R.G. drafted parts of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to A. Williams, A. Boley, G. Rotola or R. Green.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Williams, A., Boley, A., Rotola, G. et al. Sustainable skies and the Earth–space environment. Nat Sustain 7, 228–231 (2024).

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