The cause of the sudden increase in the complexity of prehistoric societies 4,000–6,000 years ago is unknown. Pig diet and millet-field manuring studies indicate that an intensive millet–pig system developed approximately 5,500 years ago in North China, which provided food for the growing populations of the emerging complex societies.
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This is a summary of: Yang, J. et al. Sustainable intensification of millet–pig agriculture in Neolithic North China. Nat. Sustain. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-022-00905-9 (2022).
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Intensive millet–pig systems supported the rise of complex societies in North China. Nat Sustain 5, 739–740 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-022-00907-7