Correction to: Nature Sustainability, published online 14 April 2022.

In the version of this article initially published, there were mistakes in affiliations 1, 2 and 6. The corrected affiliations should read as follows: 1. Department of Earth System Science, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Institute for Global Change Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 2. Ministry of Education Ecological Field Station for East Asian Migratory Birds, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 6. Department of Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, and Institute for Climate and Carbon Neutrality, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. The affiliations have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.