Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Closing the loop for perovskite solar modules

Perovskite solar cell modules are expected to enter the market in the near future, but their implications in terms of sustainability compared to other photovoltaic devices are still debated. Now a study lays the groundwork for their eco-design.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Fig. 1: Potential closed-loop recycling pathways in the PV life cycle for the eco-design of sustainable PV devices.


  1. 1.

    Li, Z. et al. Nat. Rev. Mater. 3, 18017 (2018).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Huang, H.-H. et al. Joule 5, 958–974 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Park, N.-G. & Zhu, K. Nat. Rev. Mater. 5, 333–350 (2020).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Tian, X., Stranks, S. D. & You, F. Nat. Sustain. (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Fthenakis, V. M., Kim, H. C. & Alsema, E. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 2168–2174 (2008).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Liu, F.-W. et al. Mater. Today 43, 185–197 (2021).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Vidal, R. et al. Nat. Sustain. 4, 277–285 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Park, S. Y. et al. Nat. Sustain. 3, 1044–1051 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Li, D. et al. Adv. Funct. Mater. 31, 2008621 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jean, J., Woodhouse, M. & Bulović, V. Joule 3, 2824–2841 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adalgisa Sinicropi.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Parisi, M.L., Sinicropi, A. Closing the loop for perovskite solar modules. Nat Sustain 4, 754–755 (2021).

Download citation


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing