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Unreflective use of old data sources produced echo chambers in the water–electricity nexus


Echo chambers in science describe the amplification and repetition of information within closed networks. Frequently used data sources can cause echo chambers as scientists keep reading similar outputs from different sources, creating false perceptions of certainty and variety of data sources. We show this effect by studying the scientific and grey literature on water use by electricity systems. The power sector is the largest contributor to anthropogenic carbon emissions and the second largest water consumer. We have assessed the scope and references of 2,426 papers and created a citation network to trace original data sources. Most data sources used for the last 30 years originate from a few old US publications, recently also Chinese, that echo through publications. This echo effect, also reflected in recent scientific publications, creates a confirmation bias, also facilitating double counting of the water intensities of electricity generation. This example from sustainability science warns of the risk of echo chambers in other scientific disciplines.

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Fig. 1: Network of literature data sources.
Fig. 2: Peer-reviewed papers serving as data sources for case studies in the WEN.
Fig. 3: Countries of origin of data sources in relation to the countries for which assessments were made.
Fig. 4: Papers used as data sources of the water intensities of coal-fired power plants in the review of Jin et al.30.
Fig. 5: Double counting in the WEN literature.

Data availability

All datasets that support the findings of this study are publicly available, or available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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We thank Y. Shan, M. Mengdie and D. Zhao for helping us assess the characteristics and quality of the Chinese data sources. This work was supported by SENESCYT (National Secretariat of Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation of Ecuador).

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Authors and Affiliations



S.V.-J. performed data analysis and wrote the paper. P.W.G.-L. conceptually designed the study and edited the paper. S.N. and K.H. supervised the project and provided an outline for the paper and edited it.

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Correspondence to S. Vaca-Jiménez.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Peer review information Nature Sustainability thanks Lu Liu, Kelly Sanders and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Supplementary Information

Supplementary Methods, Discussion, Notes 1–8, Figs. 1–19 and references.

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Vaca-Jiménez, S., Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S. et al. Unreflective use of old data sources produced echo chambers in the water–electricity nexus. Nat Sustain 4, 537–546 (2021).

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