Natural disaster risk assessments typically consider environmental hazard and physical damage, neglecting to quantify how asset losses affect households’ well-being. However, for a given asset loss, a wealthy household might quickly recover, while a poor household might suffer major, long-lasting impacts. This research proposes a methodology to quantify disaster impacts more equitably by integrating the three pillars of sustainability: environmental (hazard and asset damage), economic (macro-economic changes in production and employment) and social (disaster recovery at the household level). The model innovates by assessing the impacts of disasters on people’s consumption, considering asset losses and changes in income, among other factors. We apply the model to a hypothetical earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, considering the differential impact of consumption loss on households of varying wealth. The analysis reveals that poorer households suffer 19% of the asset losses but 41% of the well-being losses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the effectiveness of specific policies varies across cities (depending on their built environment and social and economic profiles) and income groups.
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The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Several input datasets that support the findings of this study are available from different platforms and sources (as described in Data sources section) and restrictions may apply to the availability of such data. Input data can be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission from the relevant data owners.
All code used to conduct this analysis is freely available at https://github.com/mary-mark/well-being_model.
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Funding for this work was provided in part by the UPS Endowment Fund at Stanford University.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Markhvida, M., Walsh, B., Hallegatte, S. et al. Quantification of disaster impacts through household well-being losses. Nat Sustain 3, 538–547 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-0508-7
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