Table 4 Estimation results of IV regressions: stage 1 of 2SLS

From: Impacts of transportation network companies on urban mobility

Model Road congestion model PT ridership model Vehicle ownership model
  Estimate t statistic Estimate t statistic Estimate t statistic
Constant 3.1640 5.924*** 0.6008 3.288*** 0.1927 0.326
GDP (k) −0.1498 −6.613*** 0.0364 3.112*** 0.0440 1.107
Population (m) 1.2620 10.918*** 0.2361 4.202*** 0.1475 0.773
Income (k) 0.0297 4.011*** 0.0002 0.073 0.0040 0.460
Unemployment −0.6054 −18.389*** −0.1228 −12.743*** −0.0730 −2.371**
Distance to Uber hub cities −0.0008 −6.575*** −0.0014 −44.501*** −0.0013 −13.490***
No. of observations 2,580   24,192   2,016  
Pseudo R2 0.1726   0.2557   0.2421  
  1. Significance codes: ***P < 0.01; **P < 0.05; *P < 0.1.
  2. All the models include MSA-level control variables, MSA fixed effects and time (month/year) fixed effects.