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Socio-environmental and land-use impacts of double-cropped maize ethanol in Brazil


Agricultural intensification, and particularly double cropping, has been suggested as a practical strategy to reconcile biofuel feedstock production with other land-use priorities. Here we assess ethanol production under conditions representative of current practice in the west central region of Brazil: maize grown as a second crop with soybean on land that formerly grew a single soybean crop, and energy processed from a combined heat and power plant using plantation-grown eucalyptus chips. For maize ethanol thus produced we find large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline, and considerable economic and employment benefits at both local and national levels. We also calculate reduced land-use emissions with maize ethanol production compared to the situation without it. Our study thus documents an example of how the complex linkages of bioenergy to food production and security, environment and economic development can be—and indeed appear to be—managed for positive outcomes using current technology.

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Fig. 1: Sugarcane and corn mills enterprise.
Fig. 2: Life cycle GHG emissions of second crop maize ethanol.
Fig. 3: Environmental performance of ethanol (EtOH) from sugarcane and double-cropped maize ethanol.
Fig. 4: Sensitivity analysis of ethanol life cycle emissions (consequential approach).

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request.


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The research for this paper was part of the Land Use Initiative (INPUT), a project supported by the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation. L.R.L. was supported by a grant from the Center for Bioenergy Innovation, a US Department of Energy Bioenergy Research Center supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science. CAPES and CNPq are thankfully acknowledged for their financial support.

Author information




J.E.A.S. performed life cycle assessment modelling. S.M.A. performed land-use modelling. M.P.C. performed the socioeconomic analysis. L.R.L. provided a critical review of the manuscript and background on maize ethanol production in the United States. J.J.M.G. provided the interregional matrix for the socioeconomic analysis. M.M.R.M. coordinated the study. All authors analysed the results and wrote the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marcelo M. R. Moreira.

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Supplementary Fig. 1, Tables 1–14 and refs. 113.

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Moreira, M.M.R., Seabra, J.E.A., Lynd, L.R. et al. Socio-environmental and land-use impacts of double-cropped maize ethanol in Brazil. Nat Sustain 3, 209–216 (2020).

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