Air conditioning adoption is increasing dramatically worldwide as incomes rise and average temperatures go up. Using daily temperature data from 14,500 weather stations, we rank 219 countries and 1,692 cities based on a widely used measure of cooling demand called total cooling degree day exposure. India, China, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Brazil, Bangladesh and the Philippines all have more total cooling degree day exposure than the United States—a country that uses 400 terawatt-hours of electricity annually for air conditioning.
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All code and related materials used in the analysis are available as Supplementary Software.
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The authors have not received any financial compensation for this project, nor do they have any financial relationships that relate to this research. We are grateful to seminar participants at the University of California, Berkeley for helpful feedback.
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Supplementary Figs. 1–7, Tables 1–9, discussion, methods and references.
Complete country- and city-level lists of CDDs.
CDD_code_20191018.R corresponds to the code used for the main analysis, while cdd_extraction_tutorial.pdf provides a tutorial for readers who would like to work with 5 km_18C.tif (see Source Data Fig. 1).
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Biardeau, L.T., Davis, L.W., Gertler, P. et al. Heat exposure and global air conditioning. Nat Sustain 3, 25–28 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0441-9
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