Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.


Modelling diet choices

Meat is an important source of greenhouse-gas emissions, but not enough people are giving it up. A new model integrates diets, land use and climate change to explore the potential and implications of mass adoption of vegetarian diets.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Rent or buy this article

Prices vary by article type



Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Gelles, D. The New York Times BU 3 (20 July 2018);

  2. Eker, S., Reese, G. & Obersteiner, M. Nat. Sustain. (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Stehfest, E. et al. Clim. Change 95, 83–102 (2009).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bauer, J. The Business of Society Blog (25 June 2018);

  5. Creutzig, F. et al. Nat. Clim. Change 8, 260–263 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Dietz, T., Gardner, G. T., Gilligan, J., Stern, P. C. & Vandenbergh, M. P. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 18452–18456 (2009).

  7. Beckage, B. et al. Nat. Clim. Change 8, 79–84 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Gilligan, J. M. Nat. Clim. Change 8, 14–15 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. de Boer, J., Schösler, H. & Boersema, J. J. J. Environ. Psychol. 33, 1–8 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bergen, S. Less Beef, Less Carbon (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2017);

  11. Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System (US Department of Agriculture, 2019);

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan M. Gilligan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gilligan, J.M. Modelling diet choices. Nat Sustain 2, 661–662 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing