Changes in stratospheric ozone and climate over the past 40-plus years have altered the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions at the Earth’s surface. Ozone depletion has also contributed to climate change across the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are interacting in complex ways to affect human health, food and water security, and ecosystem services. Many adverse effects of high UV exposure have been avoided thanks to the Montreal Protocol with its Amendments and Adjustments, which have effectively controlled the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. This international treaty has also played an important role in mitigating climate change. Climate change is modifying UV exposure and affecting how people and ecosystems respond to UV; these effects will become more pronounced in the future. The interactions between stratospheric ozone, climate and UV radiation will therefore shift over time; however, the Montreal Protocol will continue to have far-reaching benefits for human well-being and environmental sustainability.
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This work has been supported by the UNEP Ozone Secretariat, and we thank T. Birmpili and S. Mylona for their guidance and assistance. Additional support was provided by the US Global Change Research Program (P.W.B., C.E.W. and S.M.), the J. H. Mullahy Endowment for Environmental Biology (P.W.B.), the US National Science Foundation (grants DEB 1360066 and DEB 1754276 to C.E.W.), the Australian Research Council (DP180100113 to S.A.R.) and the University of Wollongong’s Global Challenges Program (S.A.R.). We appreciate the contributions from other UNEP EEAP members and co-authors of the EEAP Quadrennial Report, including: M. Ilyas, Y. Takizawa, F. L. Figueroa, H. H. Redhwi and A. Torikai. Special thanks to A. Netherwood for his assistance in drafting and improving figures. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) peer and administrative review policies and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation for use by the US EPA.
The authors declare no competing interests.
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