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Including the subsurface in ecosystem services

Ecosystem-service assessments often fail to account for groundwater’s role in the ecosystem. Whether groundwater is important for these services depends strongly on the assessment scale and the local context.

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Fig. 1: Groundwater’s presence is seen in the local lakes, wetlands, and vegetation patterns of many agricultural regions that produce valuable goods and services.

Chris Hepburn / Getty


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Correspondence to P. James Dennedy-Frank.

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Dennedy-Frank, P.J. Including the subsurface in ecosystem services. Nat Sustain 2, 443–444 (2019).

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