Abstract

Urban nature has the potential to improve air and water quality, mitigate flooding, enhance physical and mental health, and promote social and cultural well-being. However, the value of urban ecosystem services remains highly uncertain, especially across the diverse social, ecological and technological contexts represented in cities around the world. We review and synthesize research on the contextual factors that moderate the value and equitable distribution of ten of the most commonly cited urban ecosystem services. Our work helps to identify strategies to more efficiently, effectively and equitably implement nature-based solutions.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Additional information

Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

References

  1. 1.

    World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2014).

  2. 2.

    Seto, K. C., Golden, J. S., Alberti, M. & Turner, B. L. Sustainability in an urbanizing planet. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 8935–8938 (2017).

  3. 3.

    The State of City Climate Finance 2015 (Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance, 2015).

  4. 4.

    Schmidt-Traub, G. Investment Needs to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals: Understanding the Billions and Trillions Working Paper Version 2 (Sustainable Development Solutions Network, 2015).

  5. 5.

    Nesshöver, C. et al. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: an interdisciplinary perspective. Sci. Total Environ. 579, 1215–1227 (2017).

  6. 6.

    Depietri, Y. & McPhearson, T. in Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas: Linkages between Science, Policy and Practice (eds Kabisch, N., Korn, H., Stadler, J. & Bonn, A.) 91–109 (Springer, Cham, 2017).

  7. 7.

    Hartig, T. & Kahn, P. H. Living in cities, naturally. Science 352, 938–40 (2016).

  8. 8.

    Soga, M. & Gaston, K. J. Extinction of experience: the loss of human–nature interactions. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14, 94–101 (2016).

  9. 9.

    Cox, D. T. C., Hudson, H. L., Shanahan, D. F., Fuller, R. A. & Gaston, K. J. The rarity of direct experiences of nature in an urban population. Landsc. Urban Plan. 160, 79–84 (2017).

  10. 10.

    Elmqvist, T. et al. Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities (Springer, Cham, 2013).

  11. 11.

    Dunn, R. R., Gavin, M. C., Sanchez, M. C. & Solomon, J. N. The pigeon paradox: dependence of global conservation on urban nature. Conserv. Biol. 20, 1814–1816 (2006).

  12. 12.

    Cortinovis, C. & Geneletti, D. Ecosystem services in urban plans: what is there, and what is still needed for better decisions. Land Use Policy 70, 298–312 (2018).

  13. 13.

    Gómez-Baggethun, E. & Barton, D. N. Classifying and valuing ecosystem services for urban planning. Ecol. Econ. 86, 235–245 (2013).

  14. 14.

    Bolund, P. & Hunhammar, S. Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol. Econ. 29, 293–301 (1999).

  15. 15.

    Luederitz, C. et al. A review of urban ecosystem services: six key challenges for future research. Ecosyst. Serv. 14, 98–112 (2015).

  16. 16.

    Haase, D. et al. A quantitative review of urban ecosystem service assessments: concepts, models, and implementation. Ambio 43, 413–433 (2014).

  17. 17.

    Raymond, C. M. et al. A framework for assessing and implementing the co-benefits of nature-based solutions in urban areas. Environ. Sci. Policy 77, 15–24 (2017).

  18. 18.

    Kabisch, N., Qureshi, S. & Haase, D. Human–environment interactions in urban green spaces — a systematic review of contemporary issues and prospects for future research. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 50, 25–34 (2015).

  19. 19.

    Salmond, J. A. et al. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment. Environ. Health 15(Suppl. 1), S36 (2016).

  20. 20.

    Ruckelshaus, M. H. et al. Evaluating the benefits of green infrastructure for coastal areas: location, location, location. Coast. Manag. 44, 504–516 (2016).

  21. 21.

    Grimm, N. B., Cook, E. M., Hale, R. L. & Iwaniec, D. M. in Routledge Handbook of Urbanization and Global Environmental Change (eds Seto, K. C. et al.) 202–212 (2015).

  22. 22.

    McPhearson, T. et al. Advancing urban ecology toward a science of cities. Bioscience 66, 198–212 (2016).

  23. 23.

    Kremer, P. et al. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research. Ecol. Soc. 21, 1–11 (2016).

  24. 24.

    Ramaswami, A. et al. A social–ecological–infrastructural systems framework for interdisciplinary study of sustainable city systems: an integrative curriculum across seven major disciplines. J. Ind. Ecol. 16, 801–813 (2012).

  25. 25.

    Mullaney, J., Lucke, T. & Trueman, S. J. A review of benefits and challenges in growing street trees in paved urban environments. Landsc. Urban Plan. 134, 157–166 (2015).

  26. 26.

    Hotte, N., Barron, S., Nesbitt, L., Cheng, Z. C. & Cowan, J. The Social and Economic Values of Canada’s Urban Forests: A National Synthesis (UBC Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Forest Sciences Centre, 2015).

  27. 27.

    Pataki, D. E. et al. Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9, 27–36 (2011).

  28. 28.

    Baró, F., Haase, D., Gómez-Baggethun, E. & Frantzeskaki, N. Mismatches between ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas: a quantitative assessment in five European cities. Ecol. Indic. 55, 146–158 (2015).

  29. 29.

    Wachsmuth, D., Aldana Cohen, D. & Angelo, H. Expand the frontiers of urban sustainability. Nature 536, 391–393 (2016).

  30. 30.

    Ordóñez-Barona, C. How different ethno-cultural groups value urban forests and its implications for managing urban nature in a multicultural landscape: a systematic review of the literature. Urban For. Urban Green. 26, 65–77 (2017).

  31. 31.

    Pincetl, S., Gillespie, T., Pataki, D. E., Saatchi, S. & Saphores, J. D. Urban tree planting programs, function or fashion? Los Angeles and urban tree planting campaigns. GeoJournal 78, 475–493 (2013).

  32. 32.

    Jones, R. E., Davis, K. L. & Bradford, J. The value of trees: factors influencing homeowner support for protecting local urban trees. Environ. Behav. 45, 650–676 (2013).

  33. 33.

    Meerow, S. & Newell, J. P. Urban resilience for whom, what, when, where, and why? Urban Geogr. https://doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2016.1206395 (2016).

  34. 34.

    Ives, C. D. & Kendal, D. The role of social values in the management of ecological systems. J. Environ. Manage. 144, 67–72 (2014).

  35. 35.

    Olander, L. P. et al. Benefit relevant indicators: ecosystem services measures that link ecological and social outcomes. Ecol. Indic. 85, 1262–1272 (2018).

  36. 36.

    Pascual, U. et al. Valuing nature’s contributions to people: the IPBES approach. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 26–27, 7–16 (2017).

  37. 37.

    Jennings, V., Larson, L. & Yun, J. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, 196 (2016).

  38. 38.

    Checker, M. Wiped out by the ‘Greenwave’: environmental gentrification and the paradoxical politics of urban sustainability. City Soc. 23, 210–229 (2011).

  39. 39.

    van den Bosch, M. & Ode Sang, Å. Urban natural environments as nature-based solutions for improved public health — a systematic review of reviews. Environ. Res. 158, 373–384 (2017).

  40. 40.

    Dempsey, N., Bramley, G., Power, S. & Brown, C. The social dimension of sustainable development: defining urban social sustainability. Sustain. Dev. 19, 289–300 (2011).

  41. 41.

    Saldivar-Tanaka, L. Culturing neighborhood open space, civic agriculture, and community development: the case of Latino community gardens in New York City. Agric. Hum. Values 21, 399–412 (2004).

  42. 42.

    Langemeyer, J., Camps-Calvet, M., Calvet-Mir, L., Barthel, S. & Gómez-Baggethun, E. Stewardship of urban ecosystem services: understanding the value(s) of urban gardens in Barcelona. Landsc. Urban Plan. 170, 79–89 (2018).

  43. 43.

    Rupprecht, C. D. D. & Byrne, J. A. Informal urban green-space: comparison of quantity and characteristics in Brisbane, Australia and Sapporo, Japan. PLoS ONE 9, e99784 (2014).

  44. 44.

    van den Berg, A. E. & van Winsum-Westra, M. Manicured, romantic, or wild? The relation between need for structure and preferences for garden styles. Urban For. Urban Green. 9, 179–186 (2010).

  45. 45.

    Nassauer, J. I. Messy ecosystems, orderly frames. Landsc. J. 14, 161–170 (1995).

  46. 46.

    Lin, B. B., Fuller, R. A., Bush, R., Gaston, K. J. & Shanahan, D. F. Opportunity or orientation? Who uses urban parks and why. PLoS ONE 9, e87422 (2014).

  47. 47.

    Lapham, S. C. et al. How important is perception of safety to park use? A four-city survey. Urban Stud. 53, 2624–2636 (2016).

  48. 48.

    Ghimire, R., Green, G. T., Poudyal, N. C. & Cordell, H. K. An analysis of perceived constraints to outdoor recreation. J. Park Recreat. Admi. 32, 52–67 (2014).

  49. 49.

    Koppen, G., Sang, Å. O. & Tveit, M. S. Managing the potential for outdoor recreation: adequate mapping and measuring of accessibility to urban recreational landscapes. Urban For. Urban Green. 13, 71–83 (2014).

  50. 50.

    Tsunetsugu, Y., Park, B. J. & Miyazaki, Y. Trends in research related to ‘shinrin-yoku’ (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing) in Japan. Environ. Health Prev. Med. 15, 27–37 (2010).

  51. 51.

    Matthews, T., Lo, A. Y. & Byrne, J. A. Reconceptualizing green infrastructure for climate change adaptation: barriers to adoption and drivers for uptake by spatial planners. Landsc. Urban Plan. 138, 155–163 (2015).

  52. 52.

    Poustie, M. S. & Deletic, A. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ambio 43, 1093–1111 (2014).

  53. 53.

    Larsen, T. A., Hoffmann, S., Lüthi, C., Truffer, B. & Maurer, M. Emerging solutions to the water challenges of an urbanizing world. Science 352, 928–933 (2016).

  54. 54.

    Poustie, M. S. et al. Sustainable urban water futures in developing countries: the centralised, decentralised or hybrid dilemma. Urban Water J. 12, 543–558 (2015).

  55. 55.

    Lawrence, A., De Vreese, R., Johnston, M., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C. C. & Sanesi, G. Urban forest governance: towards a framework for comparing approaches. Urban For. Urban Green. 12, 464–473 (2013).

  56. 56.

    Cutter, S. L., Boruff, B. J. & Shirley, W. L. Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc. Sci. Q. 84, 242–261 (2003).

  57. 57.

    Paul, B. K. Factors affecting evacuation behavior: the case of 2007 Cyclone Sidr, Bangladesh. Prof. Geogr. 64, 401–414 (2012).

  58. 58.

    O’Neill, M. S., Zanobetti, A. & Schwartz, J. Disparities by race in heat-related mortality in four US cities: the role of air conditioning prevalence. J. Urban Health 82, 191–197 (2005).

  59. 59.

    Flocks, J., Escobedo, F., Wade, J., Varela, S. & Wald, C. Environmental justice implications of urban tree cover in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Environ. Justice 4, 125–134 (2011).

  60. 60.

    Nowak, D. J., Crane, D. E. & Stevens, J. C. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban For. Urban Green. 4, 115–123 (2006).

  61. 61.

    Janhäll, S. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution — deposition and dispersion. Atmos. Environ. 105, 130–137 (2015).

  62. 62.

    McPherson, E. G. & Kendall, A. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles program. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 19, 1653–1665 (2014).

  63. 63.

    Hamstead, Z. A., Kremer, P., Larondelle, N., McPhearson, T. & Haase, D. Classification of the heterogeneous structure of urban landscapes (STURLA) as an indicator of landscape function applied to surface temperature in New York City. Ecol. Indic. 70, 574–585 (2016).

  64. 64.

    Pinsky, M. L., Guannel, G. & Arkema, K. K. Quantifying wave attenuation to inform coastal habitat conservation. Ecosphere 4, 1–16 (2013).

  65. 65.

    Xiao, Q. & McPherson, E. G. Surface water storage capacity of twenty tree species in Davis, California. J. Environ. Qual. 45, 188 (2016).

  66. 66.

    Berland, A. et al. The role of trees in urban stormwater management. Landsc. Urban Plan. 162, 167–177 (2017).

  67. 67.

    Badami, M. G. & Ramankutty, N. Urban agriculture and food security: a critique based on an assessment of urban land constraints. Glob. Food Sec. 4, 8–15 (2015).

  68. 68.

    Gunawardena, K. R., Wells, M. J. & Kershaw, T. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Sci. Total Environ. 584–585, 1040–1055 (2017).

  69. 69.

    Zardo, L., Geneletti, D., Pérez-Soba, M. & Van Eupen, M. Estimating the cooling capacity of green infrastructures to support urban planning. Ecosyst. Serv. 26, 225–235 (2017).

  70. 70.

    Narayan, S. et al. The effectiveness, costs and coastal protection benefits of natural and nature-based defences. PLoS ONE 11, e0154735 (2016).

  71. 71.

    Koch, E. W. et al. Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7, 29–37 (2009).

  72. 72.

    National Research Council Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts (The National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2007).

  73. 73.

    Guswa, A. J., Hamel, P. & Dennedy-Frank, P. J. Potential effects of landscape change on water supplies in the presence of reservoir storage. Water Resour. Res. 53, 2679–2692 (2017).

  74. 74.

    Hamel, P., Daly, E. & Fletcher, T. D. Source-control stormwater management for mitigating the impacts of urbanisation on baseflow: a review. J. Hydrol. 485, 201–211 (2013).

  75. 75.

    Palliwoda, J., Kowarik, I. & von der Lippe, M. Human–biodiversity interactions in urban parks: the species level matters. Landsc. Urban Plan. 157, 394–406 (2017).

  76. 76.

    Qiu, L., Lindberg, S. & Nielsen, A. B. Is biodiversity attractive? On-site perception of recreational and biodiversity values in urban green space. Landsc. Urban Plan. 119, 136–146 (2013).

  77. 77.

    Barnes, M. et al. Characterizing nature and participant experience in studies of nature exposure for mental health, an integrative review. Front. Psychol. (in the press).

  78. 78.

    Nagendra, H., Bai, X., Brondizio, E. S. & Lwasa, S. The urban south and the predicament of global sustainability. Nat. Sustain. 1, 341–349 (2018).

  79. 79.

    Fletcher, T. D., Andrieu, H. & Hamel, P. Understanding, management and modelling of urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters: a state of the art. Adv. Water Resour. 51, 261–279 (2013).

  80. 80.

    Walsh, C. J. et al. Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems. Freshw. Sci. 35, 398–411 (2016).

  81. 81.

    Cohen, D. A. et al. The prevalence and use of walking loops in neighborhood parks: a national study. Environ. Health Perspect. 125, 170–174 (2017).

  82. 82.

    Ramsay, G. et al. The barriers to millennials visiting Rouge Urban National Park. Sustainability 9, 904 (2017).

  83. 83.

    Kondolf, G. M. & Pinto, P. J. The social connectivity of urban rivers. Geomorphology 277, 182–196 (2017).

  84. 84.

    McCormack, G. R., Rock, M., Toohey, A. M. & Hignell, D. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research. Health Place 16, 712–726 (2010).

  85. 85.

    IPCC Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report (eds Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R. K. & Meyer L. A.) (IPCC, 2014).

  86. 86.

    Vos, P. E. J., Maiheu, B., Vankerkom, J. & Janssen, S. Improving local air quality in cities: to tree or not to tree? Environ. Pollut. 183, 113–122 (2013).

  87. 87.

    Paerl, H. W. & Huisman, J. Climate change: a catalyst for global expansion of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Environ. Microbiol. Rep. 1, 27–37 (2009).

  88. 88.

    Nowak, D. J., Stevens, J. C., Sisinni, S. M. & Luley, C. J. Effects of urban tree management and species selection on atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Arboric. 28, 113–122 (2002).

  89. 89.

    Andrade, L. H. et al. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil. PLoS ONE 7, e31879 (2012).

  90. 90.

    Bratman, G. N., Hamilton, J. P., Hahn, K. S., Daily, G. C. & Gross, J. J. Nature experience reduces rumination and subgenual prefrontal cortex activation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 8567–8572 (2015).

  91. 91.

    Kuehler, E., Hathaway, J. & Tirpak, A. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network. Ecohydrology 10, e1813 (2017).

  92. 92.

    Criss, R. E. Statistics of evolving populations and their relevance to flood risk. J. Earth Sci. 27, 2–8 (2016).

  93. 93.

    de Risi, R. et al. Flood risk assessment for informal settlements. Nat. Hazards 69, 1003–1032 (2013).

  94. 94.

    Apparicio, P. & Séguin, A.-M. Accessibility of services and facilities for elderly residents of public housing in Montreal: an equity issue. Urban Stud. 43, 187–211 (2006).

  95. 95.

    Rigolon, A. A complex landscape of inequity in access to urban parks: a literature review. Landsc. Urban Plan. 153, 160–169 (2016).

  96. 96.

    Arkema, K. K. et al. Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nat. Clim. Change 3, 913–918 (2013).

  97. 97.

    Loughnan, M., Nicholls, N. & Tapper, N. J. Mapping heat health risks in urban areas. Int. J. Popul. Res. 2012, 1–12 (2012).

  98. 98.

    Wolch, J. R., Byrne, J. & Newell, J. P. Urban green space, public health, and environmental justice: the challenge of making cities ‘just green enough’. Landsc. Urban Plan. 125, 234–244 (2014).

  99. 99.

    Kwon, Y., Joo, S., Han, S. & Park, C. Mapping the distribution pattern of gentrification near urban parks in the case of Gyeongui Line Forest Park, Seoul, Korea. Sustainability 9, 231 (2017).

  100. 100.

    Anguelovski, I., Connolly, J. J. T., Masip, L. & Pearsall, H. Assessing green gentrification in historically disenfranchised neighborhoods: a longitudinal and spatial analysis of Barcelona. Urban Geogr. 3, 1–34 (2018).

  101. 101.

    Nagendra, H. & Ostrom, E. Applying the social-ecological system framework to the diagnosis of urban lake commons in Bangalore, India. Ecol. Soc. 19, 67 (2014).

  102. 102.

    Unnikrishnan, H. & Nagendra, H. Privatizing the commons: impact on ecosystem services in Bangalore’s lakes. Urban Ecosyst. 18, 613–632 (2015).

  103. 103.

    Klinenberg, E. Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago (Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 2003).

  104. 104.

    Klein Rosenthal, J., Kinney, P. L. & Metzger, K. B. Intra-urban vulnerability to heat-related mortality in New York City, 1997–2006. Health Place 30, 45–60 (2014).

  105. 105.

    Bedimo-Rung, A. L., Mowen, A. J. & Cohen, D. A. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health. Am. J. Prev. Med. 28, 159–168 (2005).

  106. 106.

    Pham, T. T. H., Apparicio, P., Séguin, A. M., Landry, S. & Gagnon, M. Spatial distribution of vegetation in Montreal: an uneven distribution or environmental inequity? Landsc. Urban Plan. 107, 214–224 (2012).

  107. 107.

    Crawford, D. et al. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status? Health Place 14, 887–891 (2008).

  108. 108.

    Cameron, R. et al. The domestic garden — its contribution to urban green infrastructure. Urban For. Urban Green. 11, 129–137 (2012).

  109. 109.

    Kortright, R. & Wakefield, S. Edible backyards: a qualitative study of household food growing and its contributions to food security. Agric. Hum. Values 28, 39–53 (2011).

  110. 110.

    Mitchell, R. & Popham, F. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372, 1655–1660 (2008).

  111. 111.

    Wheeler, B. W. et al. Beyond greenspace: an ecological study of population general health and indicators of natural environment type and quality. Int. J. Health Geogr. 14, 1–17 (2015).

  112. 112.

    Andersson, E., Tengö, M., McPhearson, T. & Kremer, P. Cultural ecosystem services as a gateway for improving urban sustainability. Ecosyst. Serv. 12, 165–168 (2015).

  113. 113.

    Vollmer, D. & Grêt-Regamey, A. Rivers as municipal infrastructure: demand for environmental services in informal settlements along an Indonesian river. Glob. Environ. Change. 23, 1542–1555 (2013).

  114. 114.

    Poe, M. R., McLain, R. J., Emery, M. & Hurley, P. T. Urban forest justice and the rights to wild foods, medicines, and materials in the city. Hum. Ecol. 41, 409–422 (2013).

  115. 115.

    Roy, S., Byrne, J. & Pickering, C. A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For. Urban Green. 11, 351–363 (2012).

  116. 116.

    Lin, B. B. et al. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens. Sci. Total Environ. 610–611, 570–575 (2018).

  117. 117.

    Vico, G., Revelli, R. & Porporato, A. Ecohydrology of street trees: design and irrigation requirements for sustainable water use. Ecohydrology 7, 508–523 (2014).

  118. 118.

    Litvak, E., Manago, K. F., Hogue, T. S. & Pataki, D. E. Evapotranspiration of urban landscapes in Los Angeles, California at the municipal scale. Water Resour. Res. 53, 4236–4252 (2017).

  119. 119.

    Janke, B. D., Finlay, J. C. & Hobbie, S. E. Trees and streets as drivers of urban stormwater nutrient pollution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 9569–9579 (2017).

  120. 120.

    Churkina, G. et al. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on air quality in Berlin during a heatwave. Environ. Sci. Technol. 51, 6120–6130 (2017).

  121. 121.

    Hobbie, S. E. et al. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 4177–4182 (2017).

  122. 122.

    Booth, D. B., Roy, A. H., Smith, B. & Capps, K. Global perspectives on the urban stream syndrome. J. Freshw. Sci. 35, 412–420 (2016).

  123. 123.

    Tallis, M., Taylor, G., Sinnett, D. & Freer-Smith, P. Estimating the removal of atmospheric particulate pollution by the urban tree canopy of London, under current and future environments. Landsc. Urban Plan. 103, 129–138 (2011).

  124. 124.

    McDonald, R. et al. Planting Healthy Air: a Global Analysis of the Role of Urban Trees in Addressing Particulate Matter Pollution and Extreme Heat (The Nature Conservancy, 2016).

  125. 125.

    Mcpherson, E. G., Kendall, A. & Albers, S. Million Trees Los Angeles: carbon dioxide sink or source? In Proc. Urban Trees Research Conference (eds Johnston, M. & Perceival, G.) 7–19 (2014).

  126. 126.

    Hardy, D., Cubillo, F., Han, M. & Li, H. Alternative Water Resources: A Review of Concepts, Solutions and Experiences (Alternative Water Resources Cluster International Water Association, 2015).

  127. 127.

    Dadson, S. J. et al. A restatement of the natural science evidence concerning catchment-based ‘natural’ flood management in the UK. Proc. R. Soc. A 473, 20160706 (2017).

  128. 128.

    Depietri, Y., Renaud, F. G. & Kallis, G. Heat waves and floods in urban areas: a policy-oriented review of ecosystem services. Sustain. Sci. 7, 95–107 (2012).

  129. 129.

    CoDyre, M., Fraser, E. D. G. & Landman, K. How does your garden grow? An empirical evaluation of the costs and potential of urban gardening. Urban For. Urban Green. 14, 72–79 (2015).

  130. 130.

    Martellozzo, F. et al. Urban agriculture: a global analysis of the space constraint to meet urban vegetable demand. Environ. Res. Lett. 9, 064025 (2014).

  131. 131.

    Kaplan, S. The restorative benefits of nature: toward an integrative framework. J. Environ. Psychol. 15, 169–182 (1995).

  132. 132.

    Bolund, P. & Hunhammar, S. Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol. Econ. 29, 293–301 (1999).

  133. 133.

    Rall, E., Bieling, C., Zytynska, S. & Haase, D. Exploring city-wide patterns of cultural ecosystem service perceptions and use. Ecol. Indic. 77, 80–95 (2017).

  134. 134.

    Thorne, C. R., Lawson, E. C., Ozawa, C., Hamlin, S. L. & Smith, L. A. Overcoming uncertainty and barriers to adoption of blue-green infrastructure for urban flood risk management. J. Flood Risk Manag. 11, S960–S972 (2018).

  135. 135.

    Sampson, R. J. Urban sustainability in an age of enduring inequalities: advancing theory and ecometrics for the 21st-century city. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 8957–8962 (2017).

  136. 136.

    Ernstson, H. The social production of ecosystem services: a framework for studying environmental justice and ecological complexity in urbanized landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 109, 7–17 (2013).

  137. 137.

    Díaz, S. et al. Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science. 359, 270–272 (2018).

  138. 138.

    Jenerette, G. D. Ecological contributions to human health in cities. Landsc. Ecol. 33, 1655–1668 (2018).

  139. 139.

    Trimmer, J. T. & Guest, J. S. Recirculation of human-derived nutrients from cities to agriculture across six continents. Nat. Sustain. 1, 427–435 (2018).

  140. 140.

    Seto, K. C., Güneralp, B. & Hutyra, L. R. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 16083–16088 (2012).

  141. 141.

    Roy, A. Urban informality: toward an epistemology of planning. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 71, 147–158 (2005).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by a grant from the University of Minnesota’s Institute on the Environment to B.L.K. and a University of Minnesota Grand Challenges Research award to B.L.K. and M.H.H. Additional support was provided by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University. T.M.’s participation was supported by the Urban Resilience to Extreme Weather-Related Events Sustainability Research Network (URExSRN; NSF grant no. SES 1444755). Assistance with literature review, formatting and references was provided by V. Dang, M. Rattu and A. Rutledge. S. Polasky and P. Kareiva provided valuable feedback on framing and early drafts of the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

    • Bonnie L. Keeler
    • , Maike H. Hamann
    •  & Kelly A. Meza Prado
  2. Natural Capital Project, Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

    • Perrine Hamel
    • , Katie K. Arkema
    • , Anne D. Guerry
    •  & Spencer A. Wood
  3. Urban Systems Lab, The New School, New York, NY, USA

    • Timon McPhearson
  4. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY, USA

    • Timon McPhearson
  5. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

    • Timon McPhearson
  6. Institute on the Environment, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

    • Maike H. Hamann
    • , Marie L. Donahue
    • , Kelly A. Meza Prado
    • , Kate A. Brauman
    •  & Justin A. Johnson
  7. School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    • Katie K. Arkema
    • , Gregory N. Bratman
    • , Anne D. Guerry
    • , Nick Neverisky
    •  & Spencer A. Wood
  8. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

    • Jacques C. Finlay
    •  & Sarah E. Hobbie
  9. Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    • Graham K. MacDonald
  10. Global Cities Program, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA

    • Robert I. McDonald

Authors

  1. Search for Bonnie L. Keeler in:

  2. Search for Perrine Hamel in:

  3. Search for Timon McPhearson in:

  4. Search for Maike H. Hamann in:

  5. Search for Marie L. Donahue in:

  6. Search for Kelly A. Meza Prado in:

  7. Search for Katie K. Arkema in:

  8. Search for Gregory N. Bratman in:

  9. Search for Kate A. Brauman in:

  10. Search for Jacques C. Finlay in:

  11. Search for Anne D. Guerry in:

  12. Search for Sarah E. Hobbie in:

  13. Search for Justin A. Johnson in:

  14. Search for Graham K. MacDonald in:

  15. Search for Robert I. McDonald in:

  16. Search for Nick Neverisky in:

  17. Search for Spencer A. Wood in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bonnie L. Keeler.

Supplementary Information

  1. Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Information, Supplementary References

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0202-1