Researchers, stakeholders and funding organizations have embraced co-production of knowledge to solve sustainability problems. Research focusing on the practice of co-production can help us understand what works in what contexts and how to avoid potentially undesirable outcomes.

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This work was supported by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) under funding received from the National Science Foundation (NSF) DBI-1052875. Any opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Author information


  1. School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    • Maria Carmen Lemos
    •  & James C. Arnott
  2. Aspen Global Change Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    • James C. Arnott
  3. Stanford University, Graduate School of Education and Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford, CA, USA

    • Nicole M. Ardoin
  4. Urban Sustainability Directors Network, Baltimore, MD, USA

    • Kristin Baja
  5. The Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC, USA

    • Angela T. Bednarek
  6. Wageningen University, Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen, Netherlands

    • Art Dewulf
  7. Science, Technology, & International Affairs, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA

    • Clare Fieseler
  8. Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve, Irvine, CA, USA

    • Kristen A. Goodrich
  9. School of Social Ecology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA

    • Kristen A. Goodrich
  10. Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

    • Kripa Jagannathan
  11. Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    • Nicole Klenk
  12. Department of Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

    • Katharine J. Mach
  13. Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

    • Alison M. Meadow
  14. Center for Community and Citizen Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA

    • Ryan Meyer
  15. Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, USA

    • Richard Moss
  16. Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, New York, USA

    • Richard Moss
  17. National Science Foundation, Alexandria, VA, USA

    • Leah Nichols
  18. City and Regional Planning, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA

    • K. Dana Sjostrom
  19. Office of Sustainability and Innovations, City of Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    • Missy Stults
  20. Wageningen University, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, Wageningen, Netherlands

    • Esther Turnhout
  21. International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Earth Institute/Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, NY, New York, USA

    • Catherine Vaughan
  22. Carnegie Mellon University, Engineering and Public Policy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

    • Gabrielle Wong-Parodi
  23. Luc Hoffmann Institute, Gland, Switzerland

    • Carina Wyborn


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