The Brazilian Amazon forest is tremendously important for its ecosystem services but attribution of economically measurable values remains scarce. Mapping these values is essential for designing conservation strategies that suitably combine regional forest protection with sustainable forest use. We estimate spatially explicit economic values for a range of ecosystem services provided by the Brazilian Amazon forest, including food production (Brazil nut), raw material provision (rubber and timber), greenhouse gas mitigation (CO2 emissions) and climate regulation (rent losses to soybean, beef and hydroelectricity production due to reduced rainfall). Our work also includes the mapping of biodiversity resources and of rent losses to timber production by fire-induced degradation. Highest values range from US$56.72 ± 10 ha−1 yr−1 to US$737 ± 134 ha−1 yr−1 but are restricted to only 12% of the remaining forest. Our results, presented on a web platform, identify regions where high ecosystem services values cluster together as potential information to support decision-making.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available at http://amazones.info. Further description of how the data were processed and analysed is presented in the SI.

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Publisher’s note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


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We received financial support from the Norwegian government through the World Bank. Feedback was provided by Y. Kraus and J. Vincent. B.S.F., M.C., G.P., R.J. and U.O. received support from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico). U.O., A.O. and R.H. received support from CAPES (Coordenação e Aperfeiçoamento de Nível Superior). B.S.F. was also supported by the Humboldt Foundation. P.M. was supported by TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) AgriFood project.

Author information


  1. Development Research Group, the World Bank, Washington, DC, USA

    • Jon Strand
    •  & Michael Toman
  2. Center for Remote Sensing, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    • Britaldo Soares-Filho
    • , Ubirajara Oliveira
    • , Sonia Carvalho Ribeiro
    •  & Aline Oliveira
  3. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil

    • Marcos Heil Costa
    •  & Gabrielle Ferreira Pires
  4. Lagesa, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    • Raoni Rajão
    •  & Richard van der Hoff
  5. Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    • Peter May
  6. Nijmegen School of Management, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

    • Richard van der Hoff
  7. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Washington, DC, USA

    • Juha Siikamäki
  8. State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    • Ronaldo Seroa da Motta


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J.S., B.S.F. and M.C. designed the project, conducted research and wrote the manuscript. G.P., U.O., S.R., R.R. and A.O. conducted research and helped write the manuscript. J.S. and R.M. conducted research. P.M., M.T. and R.H. helped write the manuscript.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Jon Strand or Britaldo Soares-Filho.

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  1. Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Sections 1–7, Supplementary Figures 1–75, Supplementary Tables 1–19, Supplementary References 1–163

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