Table 1 Redesign typology and examples of sub-types of intervention

From: Global assessment of agricultural system redesign for sustainable intensification

Redesign type Illustrative redesign sub-types of intervention
1. Integrated pest management Integrated pest management through farmer field schools
Integrated plant and pest management
Push–pull systems
2. Conservation agriculture Conservation agriculture practices
Zero- and low-tillage
Soil conservation and soil erosion prevention
Enhancement of soil health
3. Integrated crop and biodiversity redesign Organic agriculture
Rice–fish systems
Systems of crop and rice intensification
Zero-budget natural farming
Science and technology backyard platforms
Farmer wisdom networks
Landcare and watershed management groups
4. Pasture and forage redesign Mixed forage–crop systems
Management intensive rotational grazing systems
Agropastoral field schools
5. Trees in agricultural systems Agroforestry
Joint and collective forest management
Leguminous fertilizer trees and shrubs
6. Irrigation water management Water user associations
Participatory irrigation management
Watershed management
Micro-irrigation technologies
7. Intensive small and patch scale systems Community farms, allotments, backyard gardens, raised beds
Vertical farms
Group purchasing associations and artisanal small producers (in community-supported agriculture operations, tekei groups, guilds)
Micro-credit groups for small-scale intensification
Integrated aquaculture
  1. This is an illustrative list of sub-types. Some sub-types span a number of types (for example, organic agriculture also appears in elements of 4 and 7). Community supported agriculture operations are group purchasing associations in North America and the UK, tekei groups are in Japan, guilds in France, Belgium and Switzerland.