a CP occurrence time, maximum area and average temperature depression (colours from red to blue, see legend) on days 1, 2 and 4 of the experiment A2b. The black curve indicates the total CP area at each time, whereas the thick coloured curve (compare legend for colours) highlights the time series of the largest CP during the particular day. b Areas covered by CPs during day 4 of A2b, the colours (see colour bar) indicate the duration during which CPs were present (compare: Supplementary Fig. 5). The scale bar is 100 km long. c CP area versus the corresponding maximum of areal mean temperature depression (day 4). Symbol sizes indicate CP lifetime and colours indicate occurrence time within the model day (see legends). Black and red rectangles along the axes indicate the median and 90th percentile of the corresponding quantity. Note the logarithmic vertical axis scale in a and c. d–f Analogous to a–c, but for A5b.