a–d Diurnal cycles of domain-averaged quantities. Each quantity was horizontally averaged for the lowest model level (z = 50 m). Time series represent a compound diurnal cycle, where equal times of day were averaged over all available model days. a Temperature for simulations with different imposed diurnal surface temperature amplitudes Ta, as labelled in the legend. Horizontal lines of corresponding colours represent the time average of each simulation. b Analogous to a, but for rain intensity. c Analogous to a, but for rain area fraction. d Mean, 90th and 99th percentiles of event rain intensity (conditional on I > I0 = 0.5 mm h−1) for A5a and A2a, as labelled (see Table 2 for experiment label details and “Methods” for the definition of rain events). e Surface rainfall average during day 1 (spin-up), day 4 and day 5 for A2a. f Similar to e, but for A5a. Boxes of side length 200 km and scale bars of length 200 km highlight the spatial and temporal variation (see Supplementary Fig. 3).