Projected changes in upwelling-favourable wind stress and migratory anticyclones by latitude. a Wind stress values at 50th (black boxes, τ50) and 75th (red boxes, τ75) percentiles of the historical simulations in the period 1970–1990. b Difference in the probability of occurrence of the wind stress value of 50th percentile between the future (2080–20100) and the present day (1970–1990) distributions (see Supplementary Fig. 1a). c Difference in the probability of occurrence of the wind stress value of 75th percentile between the future (2080–2100) and the present-day (1970–1990) distributions (see Supplementary Fig. 1b). d Difference (Δ75 – Δ50) of the changes of wind stress values of 50th (Δ50) and 75th (Δ75) between present (1970–1990) and future (2080–2100). e Difference in skewness of the wind stress distribution between future (2080–2100) and present (1970–1990). f Difference in the density of migratory anticyclones between future (2080–2100) and the present (1970–1990) off the coastal upwelling regions. Circle indicates median, boxes the range 25th and 75th percentiles, and lines extend to the most extreme data points of the 16 models. Dots are outliers. The grey horizontal bands indicate the location of strongest wind stress in the historical simulations during the period 1970–1990.