Fig. 7 | npj Climate and Atmospheric Science

Fig. 7

From: Evidence for a volcanic underpinning of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Fig. 7

Timeseries stack showing CMIP5 simulated mean annual North Atlantic and global SST in relation to atmospheric CO2 concentration and volcanic aerosols. a SST for the North Atlantic (0°N–60°N, 80°W–0°W). b SST global mean annual SST. c Global SO2 emissions41 (black) and atmospheric CO2 concentration (orange). d Stratospheric aerosol optical depths with key eruptions labeled (refer also to Fig. 2). SST timeseries are from ensemble averages of five leading CMIP5 models (CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, GISS-E2-H-P1, HADGEM2-ES, MIROC5). CO2 data from NASA GISS (https://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/ghgases/)

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