Fig. 6 | npj Climate and Atmospheric Science

Fig. 6

From: Evidence for a volcanic underpinning of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Fig. 6

Timeseries stack showing observed mean annual SST for the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and globe in relation to atmospheric CO2 concentration and volcanic aerosols. a SST for the North Pacific (0°N–60°N, 120°E–255°E) (orange), North Atlantic (0°N–60°N, 80°W–0°W) (blue), and average of the two signals (black). b SST for the globe. c Global SO2 emissions41 (black) and atmospheric CO2 concentration (orange). d Stratospheric aerosol optical depths with key eruptions labeled (refer also to Fig. 2). Colored arrows identify intervals of volcanic cooling and pronounced anthropogenic warming. Observed SST from NOAA ERSST V3b. CO2 data from NASA GISS (https://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/ghgases/)

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