Fig. 2 | npj Climate and Atmospheric Science

Fig. 2

From: Evidence for a volcanic underpinning of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Fig. 2

Annual mean timeseries stack for key metrics related to the AMO. a Subpolar SST (50°N-60°N, 55°W-25°W). b Tropical SST (0°N-25°N, 60°W-15°W). c Basin-wide SST (0°N-60°N, 80°W-0°W). d AMO index. e NASA GISS record of stratospheric aerosol optical depths at 550 nm for the globe37 (data from http://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/strataer/). The timeseries in a and b are averaged across the regions identified in Fig. 1. Gray columns delineate prominent volcanic peaks. The numbers in e identify eruption sources noted in Sato et al.37 and Sedlacek et al.,39 and inferred from the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program database (http://volcano.si.edu/): 1) Cotopaxi (Ecuador, 1855, VEI 3) and Awu (Indonesia, 1856, VEI 3), 2) Krakatau (Indonesia, 1883, VEI 6), 3) Santa María (Guatemala, 1902, VEI 6), 4) Ksudach (Kamchatka, 1907, VEI 5), 5) Novarupta (Aleutians, 1912, VEI 5), 6) Agung (Indonesia, 1963, VEI 5), 7) Fernandina (Galápagos Islands, 1968, VEI 4), 8) Fuego (Guatemala, 1974, VEI 4), 9) El Chichón (Mexico, 1982, VEI 5), 10) Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991, VEI 6). VEI = Volcanic Explosivity Index. Special annotations in a: (*) SST decline immediately after World War II that is known to be an artifact related to changes in instrumentation and measurement distribution at the end of the war;40 (?) significant SST decline for which there is not an associated volcanic aerosol spike. Observed SST from NOAA ERSST V3b

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