Fig. 1 | npj Climate and Atmospheric Science

Fig. 1

From: Evidence for a volcanic underpinning of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

Fig. 1

Timeseries and spatial representations of the AMO. a The AMO index 1856–2015 (data from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/timeseries/AMO/). Warm AMO indices shaded orange, cool indices shaded blue. Red and blue dots denote the six warmest (1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1958, 1960) and coolest (1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976) years averaged to represent AMO-Warm and AMO-Cool maps shown in b and c. Modern reanalysis begins 1948. b Mean SST anomaly maps (1951–1980 climatology) for warm (left panel) and cool (right panel) years identified in a. The Labrador Sea (LS) and Sargasso Sea (SG) are labeled for reference. The boxes labeled 1–3 in the right panel of b outline the subpolar, tropical, and Labrador Sea domains referred to in Figs. 2 and 4. c Mean 10-meter wind speed maps corresponding to warm (left panel) and cool (right panel) SST anomalies in b. The Icelandic Low and Azores High are labeled L and H, respectively, and with letters sized according to relative intensity. The middle latitude westerly and tropical easterly winds are identified by arrows and also sized according to relative intensity. Observed SST from NOAA ERSST V3b. Wind and pressure from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis

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