Table 2 Clustering countries with registered COVID-19 cases.

From: Social markers of a pandemic: modeling the association between cultural norms and COVID-19 spread data

  Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Governmental data Government effectiveness −−
8.80 [7.80, 9.70]
+
12.30 [10.80, 14.25]
++
18.60 [17.90, 18.80]
+
13.00 [11.25, 15.15]
Government stringency index +
83.5 [79.75, 86]
++
88 [76.25, 95]

67 [57, 71]
++
95 [71.5, 97.5]
Tests performed per million inhabitants −−
68.35 [10.03, 247.28]

404.6 [312.5, 1136.3]
+
1381 [543, 1980]
++
2033 [313.1, 5363.2]
Climate data Most dominant climate zone
n (%)
Dry (Arid and Semiarid)
13/29 (44.8%)
Temperate (Mesothermal)
16/26 (61.5%)
Temperate (Mesothermal)
14/21 (66.7%)
Dry (Arid and Semiarid)
5/11 (45.5%)
Social data Population size +
33,848,242 [12,323,252, 80,471,869]

7,172,443 [3,427,257, 16,257,520]

9,828,655 [5,009,150, 33,679,000]

7,353,985 [3,745,101, 87,855,322]
Population density
75.23 [46.68, 99.67]

83.25 [42.37, 110.58]
+
97.84 [15.83, 205.48]
++
354.07 [147.55, 564.00]
Agency −−
12.40 [10.80, 14.30]
+
18.35 [16.35, 19.45]
++
21.60 [21.00, 22.40]
−−
12.60 [11.00, 16.40]
Social networks
13.60 [12.00, 15.10]

13.80 [12.72, 15.10]
++
15.40 [14.50, 15.70]

13.80 [11.70, 15.00]
Personal and family relationships −−
13.90 [12.60, 15.40]
+
16.05 [15.27, 16.50]
++
16.60 [16.20, 17.10]

14.20 [12.70, 14.90]
Civic and social participation
4.70 [3.00, 6.50]

5.65 [4.35, 6.88]
++
11.30 [9.00, 12.40]

6.40 [4.95, 7.55]
Freedom of assembly and association −−
10.10 [4.00, 13.00]
+
16.60 [13.67, 17.30]
++
18.20 [17.90, 18.50]
−−
7.20 [3.65, 15.05]
Importance of doing something for the good of society
2.4 [2.16, 2.57]

2.22 [2.15–2.59]
++
2.91 [2.78–3.01]
+
2.67 [2.39–2.9]
Importance of behaving properly
2.43 [2.32, 2.6]
+
2.56 [2.32–2.71]
++
3.16 [2.87–3.31]
+
2.72 [2.42–2.93]
Confidence in the government +
11.7 [7.6, 19.15]

7.1 [3.9–11.2]
−−
4.7 [2.78–5.58]
+++
21.6 [5.7–32.9]
Obeying rulers as an essential characteristic of democracy +
6.64 [5.78, 6.99]

5.9 [5.26–6.22]
−−
4.66 [3.78–5]
+
6.05 [5.12–6.68]
Economic and healthcare data Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) index −−
66.30 [61.00, 72.70]

76.30 [71.55, 80.95]
++
88.20 [86.20, 89.60]
+
82.00 [75.90, 85.65]
GDP per capita −−
4598.63 [3562.10, 8949.04]

12,660.98 [7366.39, 16,387.37]
++
45,481.10 [42,469.36, 55,987.65]
+
39,752.72 [25,090.62, 53,387.39]
Travel and tourism direct contribution to GDP +
0.04 [0.03, 0.06]
+
0.04 [0.03, 0.06]
+
0.04 [0.02, 0.05]

0.03 [0.03, 0.04]
Preventative interventions
12.40 [11.00, 13.10]

13.00 [12.33, 13.20]
+
13.60 [13.50, 13.80]
+
13.30 [12.95, 13.85]
COVID-19 data Doubling time in days +
5.18 [3.62, 7.82]

4.30 [3.54, 4.91]

4.22 [3.27, 5.15]
++
10.12 [5.84, 12.27]
  1. Note: − and + represents negative or positive variation from median values, within one (−/+), two (−−/++), or three (+++) inter-quartile ranges. Median represented as +/−. Numerical values are represented in the median [IQR] format.