Table 1 Data sources, variable descriptions and variable’s purpose in the analytical process.

From: Social markers of a pandemic: modeling the association between cultural norms and COVID-19 spread data

Data source Variable name Description Variable’s analytical purpose
Hale et al. (2020) Government Stringency Index Government Stringency Index is a measure of the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, based on the following indicators: school and workplace closing, cancellation of public events, closing public transport, public info campaigns, restrictions on internal movement, international travel controls, fiscal and monetary measures, investment in health care and vaccines Descriptive purposes for detailing country-level cluster profiles
Our World in Data (2020) Tests per million people The cumulative number of tests performed, or people tested per million people
World Value Survey (WVS) Wave 6 data, Inglehart et al. (2014) V74—Schwartz value item This variable measures the perceived importance of doing something for the good of society (social utility)
V77—Schwartz value item This variable measures the perceived importance of behaving properly (conformity)
V115—Confidence item This variable measures the extent to which citizens trust the government (trust)
V138—Essential characteristics of democracy item This variable measures the extent to which citizens consider obeying their rulers as an essential characteristic of democracy (compliance)
Legatum Institute’s 2019 Prosperity Index Government effectiveness
(pillar of Governance)
Government effectiveness defines the quality of public health provision, the competence of officials and the quality of the bureaucracy (its indicators consist of, e.g. policy coordination, government quality and credibility, efficiency of government spending, etc.) Clustering and predictive purposes: these variables form the basis of country-level clusters and predicting COVID-19 doubling time
(pillar of Personal Freedom)
Agency defines the degree to which citizens are free from restriction and are free to move, indicating the experiences of the freedom to act independently and making free choices (its indicators consist of e.g. personal autonomy and individual rights, freedom of movement, satisfaction with freedom, etc.)
Freedom of assembly and association
(pillar of Personal Freedom)
Freedom of assembly and association defines the degree to which citizens have the freedom to assemble with others in public spaces, or to express their opinions (its indicators consist of e.g. the right to associate and organize, the guarantee of assembly and association and the autonomy from the state)
Social network
(pillar of Social capital)
Social network defines the strength and opportunities of the individual’s relationships with the wider social network, including social support (its indicators consist of, e.g. respect, the opportunity to make friends or helping another household)
Personal and family relationships
(pillar of Social capital)
Personal and family relationships defines the strength of the closest personal relationships and family ties, forming the individual’s emotional, mental and financial support (its indicators consist of e.g. help from family and friends when in trouble or the positive energy provided by the family)
Civic and social participation
(pillar of Social capital)
Civic and social participation defines the amount to which citizens participate within the society, split into the civic and social spheres (its indicators consist of e.g. donated money to charity, volunteering, voiced opinion to a public official, etc.)
Preventative interventions
(pillar of Health)
Preventative interventions defines the extent to which the health system prevents diseases and other medical complications from occurring (its indicators consist of, e.g. the existence of national screening programs, or diphteria, measles, hepatitis immunization, etc.)
Köppen-Geiger updated climate zones by Kottek et al. (2006), using the downscaling algorithms of Rubel et al. (2017) Class A—Tropical climates Being the warmest of all, Class A climate zone includes geographic regions with tropical monsoon, rainforests, or savannas. With constant high temperatures, year round averages are 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher Predictive purpose: this variable served as a covariate in predicting COVID-19 doubling time
Class B—Dry (Arid and Semiarid) climates Class B climate zone includes regions with hot or cold deserts, or semiarid climates, characterized by evaporation and transpiration exceeding precipitation. The average annual temperature of low latitude climate is above 18 °C (64.4 °F), while in case of middle-latitude climate the average annual temperature is below 18 °C (64.4 °F)
Class C—Temperate (Mesothermal) climates Class C climate zone includes regions with subtropical, mediterranean, and oceanic climates. In the spring/summer months, average monthly high temperature average of 10 °C (50 °F) or more is observed, while in the fall/winter months, average monthly low temperature is greater than −3 °C (27 °F)
Class D—Continental (Microthermal) climates Class D climate zone includes regions with continental and subarctic climates. In the warmest months, average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) is observed, while the coldest month average is below −3 °C (27 °F)
Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2015 Healthcare Access and Quality Collaborators (2017) Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) index 2015 HAQ index—a summary measure on a scale of 0–100—is based on national mortality rates from causes that should not be lethal in the presence of effective medical care Clustering and predictive purposes: these variable form the basis of country-level clusters and predicting COVID-19 doubling time 28 March 2020) GDP per capita GDP is calculated as the sum of gross value added by the economy’s resident producers, product taxes, minus the subsidies that are not included in the products’ value. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population
World Travel & Tourism Council 2019 Travel and tourism direct contribution to GDP in 2018 This index indicates the extent to which the travel and tourism industry directly contributed to gross domestic profit
The GeoNames geographical database: (accessed 28 March 2020) Population and population density National indicators of population size and population per unit area