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The original version of this Article contained errors.
Some of the figure panels have been manipulated to remove the features irrelevant to the scientific content depicted in those (e.g. measuring tape, previous image labels, visible fingers etc.). The Authors recognise that this level of manipulation was inappropriate, and provide original images. As a result, the following panels were corrected and the original versions of the figures containing these panels are shown below for the record: Figure 3, Figures 4C & 4D, Figures 7C & 7D, Figures 8A & 8C, Figures 10A-C, Figures 11A-C, Figures 13D, 13F & 13H, Figure 14A & 14C, Figures 15A & 15B, Figures 18A & 18D, Figure 21A, Figures 22A, 22C & 22E, Figures 23A, 23C & 23F, all panels in Figure 25, Figures 26A & 26B, all panels in Figure 28, Figures 29B, 29D, and 29E, all panels in Figure 30, Figure 31A, Figure 32A, 32C, 32D & 32F, Figures 33A & 33B, all panels in Figure 34, Figures 38B-D, Figure 39A, Figure 40A, Figures 41A & 41C, Figures 42A & 42C, Figure 43, Figure 44C, Figure 45C, Figure 46C, and Figure 47B & 47C.
Additionally, scales were re-adjusted in the following panels: Figure 4C, Figures 11A, 11C & 11D, and Figure 26A. A number of panels was rotated 180 degrees so that original labels are not oriented upside down; this affects Figure 13H, Figure 22B, Figures 25C, 25E, 25F, & 25K, Figure 32A & 32B, Figure 34E, Figures 38C & 38F. Panels 14A & 14B had colour adjusted – these panels now show original images. Position of panels in Figure 51 was re-adjusted.
Finally, panel 15b was horizontally flipped in relation to the original and had the arrow pointing north obscured. It has now been replaced with a correct image.
Original versions of all affected figures are reproduced below for the record.
Additionally, a further clarification of how the OxCal tool was used are now included in the paper. A new subsection called ‘Bayesian analyses of radiocarbon dates’ was added at the end of the Methods section. This subsection includes two new references, References 203 and 204, which are now added to the Reference list in the published Article:
“There are two functions in OxCal that are used for combining dates from a single inferred event. The ‘R_Combine’ function is used to combine two or more radiocarbon dates from the same source, e.g., a single skeleton203,204. The ‘Combine’ function is used to combine two or more radiocarbon dates from different sources that are believed to be coeval, e.g., the date that beams were used to build a cathedral203,204. The ‘Combine’ routine is the one used in Bunch et al., because there were different radiocarbon sources, e.g., charred palace beams and charred seeds. The presence of tens of thousands of pieces of charcoal, wood, melted mudbricks, melted pottery, and melted spherules randomly mixed throughout a single unstratified, unconsolidated stratum strongly supports the hypothesis that they represent a single city-wide episode of biomass burning. Thus, the ‘Combine’ function is the appropriate OxCal routine to use.”
The Competing Interests section was updated and now reads:
“T.E.B., M.A.L., J.H.W., W.S.W., G.H., C.R.M., J.P.K., and A.W. volunteer their time as cofounders and/or directors of the Comet Research Group (CRG), a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. CRG received donations from the public and contributed funding for equipment, supplies, and scientific analyses. T.E.B., M.A.L., J.H.W., W.S.W., G.H., C.R.M., J.P.K., and A.W. receive no salaries, compensation, stock, or any other financial benefits from CRG, except that M.A.L., G.H., and A.W. realize tax benefits from donations to CRG. In some cases, co-authors have been compensated for out-of-pocket expenses, such as airfare, that are directly related to the TeH research.
P.J.S. volunteers his time and receives no salary from Trinity Southwest University (TSU), a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. TSU received donations and contributed support, supplies, equipment, and funding for TeH Excavation Project. P.J.S. was reimbursed by Trinity Southwest University for his hotel room while in Jordan but not for other out-of-pocket expenses.
P.J.S. is the author of two books related to TeH.
A.W. is the author of a book unrelated to TeH.
A.V.A., C.M., D.B., E.C.S., G.K., J.K., K.L., M.C.L.P., R.E.H., S.M., T.D.B., and T.W. received salaries, supplies, equipment, and/or funding for scientific analyses from their respective universities/organizations, which, due to the worldwide publicity, possibly stand to benefit from increased donations and student enrollments.
All co-authors have not yet but may receive reimbursements for attending symposia on this research from their respective organizations. All co-authors were involved in various aspects of conceptualization, design, data collection, analysis, the decision to publish, and/or preparation of the manuscript.”
Finally, the beginning of the Acknowledgements section was updated,
“We gratefully acknowledge the invaluable assistance of the senior staff at Tall el-Hammam: Director, Steven Collins; Assistant Director, Gary A. Byers, and Assistant Director, Carrol M. Kobs.”
“We gratefully acknowledge the invaluable assistance of the senior staff at Tall el-Hammam: Director, Steven Collins; Assistant Director, Gary A. Byers, and Assistant Director, Carrol M. Kobs. Additionally, we thank Daniel Galassini, Michael Luddeni, Brandy Forrest, James Barber, and Sultan Madi, who took the site excavation photographs for the Tall el-Hammam Excavation Project, which made them available for this study (Fig 1B, Figs 4D & 4E, Fig 6, Figs 7A & 7B, Fig 15A, and Fig 44C—Michael Luddeni, Fig 3—Daniel Galassini, Figs 7C & 7D, Fig 15B—Brandy Forrest, Fig 16A—James Barber, Figs 44A & 44B—Sultan Madi).”
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Bunch, T.E., LeCompte, M.A., Adedeji, A.V. et al. Author Correction: A Tunguska sized airburst destroyed Tall el-Hammam a Middle Bronze Age city in the Jordan Valley near the Dead Sea.
Sci Rep12, 3265 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-06266-9