Table 1 Examples of studies documenting rescue behaviour in animals.

From: Observation of rescue behaviour in wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Common name Scientific name Condition Context of rescue behaviour Reference
Carnivora
Dog Canis lupus familiaris E Opening door to release owner trapped in a box 21,25
Banded mongoose Mungos mungo O Lunging at an eagle to release captured pack member 26
Cetartiodactyla
Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae O Interfering with killer whale to release attacked conspecifics 27
Wild boar Sus scrofa O Opening door to release group members trapped in a cage this study
Primates
Black-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix penicillata O Cooperative attack on a snake to rescue captured group member 28
White-faced capuchin Cebus capucinus O Intervening in deadly attack of female and her infant by another individual 22
O Cooperative attack on a snake to release captured group member 29
Cebus imitator O Cooperative attack on a snake to release captured group member 30
Grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus O Cooperative attack on a snake to release captured group member 31
Bonobo Pan paniscus O Removing snare to release captured conspecific 32
Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes O Removing snare to release captured conspecific 23
O Cooperative attack on a leopard to rescue group member 33
Bornean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus O Protecting a female attacked by other individuals 34
Coquerel´s sifaka Propithecus coquereli O Cooperative attack on a snake to release captured group member 35
Moustached tamarin Saguinus mystax O Cooperative attack on a snake to release captured group member 36
Proboscidae
African elephant Loxodonta africana O Removing foreign objects (tranquilizing darts, spears) from body of conspecific 24
O Intervening in attack on conspecifics by other individuals 24
Rodents
Rat Rattus norvegicus E Opening door to release a cage mate entrapped in a restrainer 3,14,15,17,18,37,38,39
  E Opening door to allow soaked conspecific into dry area 10,13
Mouse Mus musculus E Opening lid to release a cage mate entrapped in a tube 16,40
Birds
Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis O Removing sticky seeds from feathers of an entangled group member 19
Invertebrates
  Cataglyphis cursor, C. floricola, Lasius grandis E Removing sand, pulling a limb and biting in snare to release a nest mate ensnared by a nylon snare and buried in sand 2,11,20
Formica sanguinea, F. cinerea, F. fusca E, O Removing sand and pulling a limb of nest mate captured by an ant lion larva 41
Veromessor pergandei O Removing spiderwebs to release entrapped nest mates 42
  1. E = experiment, O = observation. The cases involving rescue from predators are often termed as examples of cooperative self-defence against predators19.