Table 1 Characteristics of the overall sample at baseline.

From: Implication of problematic substance use in poststroke depression: an hospital-based study

Demographic & Clinical characteristics Baseline values (n = 74) CESD defined post-stroke depression at three  months (N = 61) Statistics; p (n)
PSD− (n = 30) PSD+ (n = 31)
Male, n (%) 51 (68.9%) 25 (41.0%) 20 (32.8%) 0.095 (61)
Age, m ± SD (range) 60.3 ± 12 (23–84) 59.6 ± 13.1 (23–78) 61.3 ± 12.6 (36–84) 0.862(61)
NIHSS at admission, m ± SD (range) 2.73 ± 3.13 (0–17) 2.20 ± 2.71 (0–13) 3.45 ± 3.56 (0–17) 0.057(61)
MoCA at admission, m ± SD (range) 22.7 ± 5.19 (3–29)a 22.6 ± 5.47 (3–29) 23.9 ± 4.09 (14–29) 0.444 (52)
MoCA at three months, m ± SD (range) 26.5 ± 3.14 (11–29)b 26.0 ± 3.75 (11–29) 27.1 ± 2.39 (19–29) 0.213 (57)
mRS at hospitalization, m ± SD (range) 1.19 ± 1.20 (0–5) 1.17 ± 1.09 (0–4) 1.16 ± 1.32 (0–5) 0.711 (61)
mRS at three months, m ± SD (range) 1.31 ± 0.90 (0–3)c 1.00 ± 0.79 (0–3) 1.60 ± 0.93 (0–3) 0.13 (60)
Past or current major depression, n (%) 16 (21.6%) 3 (4.92%) 9 (9.84%) 0.106 (61)
Past depression at admission, n (%) 11 (14.9%) 2 (3.3%) 5 (8.2%)  
Current depression at admission, n (%) 8 (10.8%) 1 (1.6%) 6 (9.8%)
FTND at admission, m ± SD (range) 5.91 ± 1.94 (3–10) d 5.21 ± 1.93 (3–10) 6.35 ± 1.82 (3–10) 0.035 (42)
AUDIT at admission, m ± SD (range) 10.6 ± 5.67 (6–33) e 9.94 ± 4.71 (6–26) 11.0 ± 7.15 (37–33) 0.684 (30)
CAST at admission, m ± SD (range) 3.80 ± 1.48 (2–6) f 2.00 ± Na 3.75 ± 1.71 (2–6) NA (5)
Vascular risk factors (admission), n (%)
Hypertension 34 (45.9%) 15 (24.6%) 15 (24.6%) 0.900 (61)
Dyslipidemia 26 (35.1%) 7 (11.5%) 14 (23.0%) 0.073 (61)
Diabetes 14 (18.9%) 5 (8.20%) 7 (11.5%) 0.561 (61)
Obesity 14 (18.9%) 7 (11.7%) 4 (6.7%) 0.335 (61)
Problematic substance use
Tobacco (n, %) 57 (77%) 19 (45.2%) 23 (54.8%) 0.510 (42)
Mild severity 14 (25.9%) 7 (16.7%) 4 (9.5%)  
Moderate severity 22 (40.7%) 8 (19.0%) 10 (23.8%)
Extreme severity 18 (33.3%) 4 (9.6%) 9 (21.4%)
Alcohol (n, %) 33 (44.6%) 18 (60.0%) 12 (40.0%) 0.096 (30)
Moderate severity 27 (81.8%) 15 (50.0%) 10 (33.3%)  
Extreme severity 6 (18.2%) 3 (10.0%) 2 (6.7%)
Cannabis (n, %) 6 (8.2%) 1 (20.0%) 4 (80.0%) NA (5)
Drug use profile (n, %) 74 (100%) 30 (70.1%) 31 (50.9%) 0.934 (61)
Mono-substance abusers 53 (71.6%) 21 (34.4%) 22 (36.2%)  
Poly-substance abusers 21 (28.4%) 9 (14.7%) 9 (14.7%)
  1. AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, CAST Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, FTND Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, CESD Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Impairment, mRS modified Rankin Scale, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, PSD+ Sub-group of patients with CESD scores indexing a moderate or severe depression, PSD Sub-group of patients with CESD scores indexing no depression.
  2. a(n = 62), b(n = 58), c(n = 61), d(n = 54), e(n = 33), f(n = 5).