Table 1 Group characteristics in young football players (YF), young controls (YC), elderly team handball players (EH) and elderly controls (EC).

From: Football and team handball training postpone cellular aging in women

  YF (n = 29) YC (n = 30) EH (n = 35) EC (n = 35)
Age (years) 22.5 ± 0.6 24.9 ± 0.4§§ 63.9 ± 0.7 66.1 ± 0.6
Exercise/fitness
All exercise (h/week) 9.0 ± 0.4### 0.1 ± 0.0 4.7 ± 0.5*** 0.2 ± 0.1
Team handball/football (h/week) 6.7 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.1
VO2max (ml/min/kg) 45.3 ± 1.0### 35.7 ± 0.9 30.2 ± 1.2*** 23.1 ± 0.8
Body composition
Body mass (kg) 65.8 ± 1.6 64.3 ± 2.3 69.2 ± 1.5 70.5 ± 1.9
Total body fat (%) 26.3 ± 0.8 33.5 ± 1.1§§§ 34.4 ± 1.4 41.1 ± 1.0†††
Android fat (%) 20.8 ± 1.2 30.6 ± 2.0§§§ 34.6 ± 2.3 44.1 ± 1.8††
Gynoid fat (%) 30.7 ± 0.9 38.3 ± 0.9§§§ 37.2 ± 1.2 43.3 ± 0.8†††
A/G ratio 0.7 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 0.0§ 0.9 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0
Total lean mass (kg) 46.3 ± 0.9### 40.5 ± 1.0 43.4 ± 0.6*** 39.8 ± 0.7
Leg lean mass (kg) 16.7 ± 0.4### 14.4 ± 0.4 15.0 ± 0.3** 13.8 ± 0.3
Telomere length (kb)
MNC 5.12 ± 0.33# 4.21 ± 0.19 3.16 ± 0.16 3.08 ± 0.17
Lymphocytes 5.67 ± 0.45# 4.59 ± 0.24 3.40 ± 0.18 3.25 ± 0.16
Monocytes 4.47 ± 0.33 4.25 ± 0.18 3.16 ± 0.19 2.91 ± 0.13
mtDNA copy number
MNC 962 ± 49# 801 ± 38 976 ± 51 1061 ± 56
Lymphocytes 853 ± 39# 715 ± 36 891 ± 48 1032 ± 65
Monocytes 386 ± 22 399 ± 21 468 ± 22 439 ± 19
  1. Group means ± SEM. #p < 0.05, ###p < 0.001, higher than YC; §p < 0.05, §§p < 0.01, §§§p < 0.001, higher than YF; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, higher than EC; p < 0.05, ††p < 0.01, †††p < 0.001 higher than EH.
  2. A/G ratio android/gynoid fat ratio; MNC mononuclear cells; VO2max maximal oxygen consumption.