Table 1 Summary of COVID-19 seroprevalence studies across the world.

From: Incorporating false negative tests in epidemiological models for SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reconciling with seroprevalence estimates

Location Study design Sample size Estimated seroprevalence % (95% CI) Reference
India Pilot survey (April 2020) in 83 districts across 21 states Unknown 0.73 overall
1.09 urban
The Indian Express (2020)
url: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/delhi-serological-survey-shows-antibodies-in-23-participants-what-does-this-mean-6516512/
India 1st national serosurvey (May–June 2020)—population-based survey of adults in representative samples from 700 villages/wards in 70 districts across 21 states conducted by ICMR 28,000 0.73 (0.34, 1.13) Murhekar et al. (2020)
Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_3290_20
India 2nd national serosurvey (August–September 2020) of persons aged ≥ 10 years covering the same villages/wards/districts/states as previous serosurvey conducted by ICMR 29,082 6.6 (5.8, 7.4) overall
7.1 (6.2, 8.2) adults
Indian Council of Medical Research (2021)
url: https://static.pib.gov.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/Modified%20ICMR_SecondSerosurvey_MMSP%20(1).pdf
India 3rd national serosurvey (December 2020-January 2021) of persons aged ≥ 10 years covering the same villages/wards/ districts/states as previous serosurveys conducted by ICMR; 100 healthcare workers per district 28,589 (general population)
7171 (healthcare workers)
21.4 adults
25.3 children aged 10–17 years
31.7 (28.1, 35.5) urban slum
26.2 (23.6, 28.8) urban non-slum
19.1 (18.0, 20.3) rural
25.7 (23.6, 27.8) healthcare workers
BBC (2021)
url: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-55945382
Chennai
India
Household-based cross-sectional survey; participants selected from 51 wards from the city using multistage cluster sampling method 12,405 18.4 (14.8, 22.6) overall
16.3 (12.9, 20.3) male
20.3 (16.4, 25.0) female
Selvaraju et al. (2021)
Emerging Infectious Diseases
doi:10.3201/eid2702.203938
Delhi
India
Prospective cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in AIIMS hospital in the city 3739 13.0 overall
13.9 male
11.7 female
Gupta et al. (2020)
Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_3911_20
Delhi
India
1st Delhi serosurvey (June–July 2020): randomly sampled individuals 21,387 22.9 The Hindu (2020)
url: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/percentage-of-people-with-antibodies-high/article32156162.ece
Delhi
India
2nd Delhi serosurvey (August 2020)
3rd Delhi serosurvey (September 2020)
4th Delhi serosurvey (October 2020)
Repeated, cross-sectional, multi-stage sampling design from all the 11 districts and 280 wards of the city-state, with two-stage allocation proportional to population size
15,046
17,049
15,015
28.4 (27.7, 29.1)
24.1 (23.4, 24.7)
24.7 (24.0, 25.4)
Sharma et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.13.20248123
Delhi
India
5th Delhi serosurvey (January 2021):
at least 100 participants from each of the 272 municipal wards of Delhi
28,000 56.1 Hindustan Times (2021)
url: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/delhi-news/delhis-5th-sero-survey-over-56-people-have-antibodies-against-covid19-101612264534349.html
Karnataka
India
Population-representative panel survey where households are randomly sampled to represent urban and rural areas of 5 state regions, and household members aged ≥ 12 years are chosen 1386 46.7 (43.3, 50.0) overall
44.1 (40.0, 48.2) rural
53.8 (48.4, 59.2) urban
Mohanan et al. (2021)
JAMA
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.0332
Kerala
India
Repeated, cross-sectional, population-based survey of adults from 3 districts of this state 1193 (May 2020)
1281 (August 2020)
1246 (December 2020)
0.3 May 18–23
0.8 August 24–26
11.6 December 20–30
Department of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Kerala
url: https://health.kerala.gov.in/pdf/Technical-paper-COVID-19-Sero-Surveillance-Round-3-ICMR.pdf
Mumbai
India
Consent-based survey across three wards of this city with high COVID-19 growth and proximity to hotspots 6936 (out of 8800 invited) 40.5 overall
57.8 slum areas
16.0 non-slum areas
The Indian Express (2020)
url: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/mumbais-serosurvey-what-it-shows-about-gender-differences-in-infection-mortality-and-herd-immunity-6529186/
Pune
India
Multi-stage cluster random sampling of participants recruited from 5 administrative sub-wards of this city selected randomly from 13 sub-wards classified as high incidence settings for a serosurvey 1659 51.3 (39.9, 62.4) overall
52.7 (41.7, 63.5) male
49.7 (37.5, 62.0) female
Ghose et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.17.20228155
Tamil Nadu
India
Population-representative study conducted in all districts of this state with randomly selected participants (aged ≥ 18 years) in 888 clusters (comprising 30 participants in each cluster) during October–November 2020 26,135 31.6 (30.4, 32.8) overall
25.1 (24.2, 26.1) rural
36.7 (35.7, 37.7) urban
30.4 (29.6, 31.2) male
32.1 (31.1, 33.0) female
Malani et al. (2021)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.03.21250949
Brazil 1st national serosurvey (May 2020)
2nd national serosurvey (June 2020)
Repeated cross-sectional study of one randomly selected person (≥ 1 year) per randomly selected household from 133 sentinel cities in all states
24,995 (1st )
31,128 (2nd)
1st: 1.6 (1.4, 1.8)
2nd: 2.8 (2.5, 3.1)
Hallal et al. (2020)
Lancet Global Health
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30387-9
Hubei and Guangdong Provinces
China
Cohort and location-specific surveys (Healthcare workers and their relatives, hospital outpatients, factory workers, hotel staff) 6919 (hospital settings)
10,449 (community settings)
3.8 (2.6, 5.4) healthcare workers, Wuhan
3.8 (2.2, 6.3) HOTEL staff members, Wuhan
3.2 (1.6, 6.4) family members, Wuhan
Xu et al. (2020)
Nature Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0949-6
England Series of consecutive weekly geographically representative sample across England (healthy adult blood donors, supplied by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant) 7000 (7 regions with 1000 per region) 14.8 London, week 18
3.5 North East, week 16
5.3 North West, week 16
Sero-surveillance of COVID-19 (2020)
url: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/888254/COVID19_Epidemiological_Summary_w22_Final.pdf
England Personalized invitation-based survey of a random sample of adults from the National Health Service patient list 105,651 5.6 (5.4, 5.7) overall, unadjusted
6.0 (5.8, 6.1) overall, adjusted for test characteristics & weighted by population weights
Ward et al. (2021)
Nature Communications
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21237-w
France Repeated cross-sectional random sample of residual sera between March & May 2020 from two of the largest centralizing laboratories in France covering all regions 11,021 0.41 (0.05, 0.88) March 9–15
4.14 (3.31, 4.99) April 6–12
4.93 (4.02, 5.89) May 11–17
Le Vu et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.20.20213116
Paris
France
Cross-sectional study of randomly sampled adults from sites with medical services in the city (food distribution sites, workers’ residences, emergency shelters) selected based on survey feasibility between March & June 2020 818 52.0 overall
28.0 (21.2, 35.5) food distribution site
89.0 (81.8, 93.2) workers’ residence
50.0 (46.3, 54.7) emergency shelter
Roederer et al. (2021)
Lancet Public Health
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00001-3
Essen
Germany
Prospective cross-sectional monocentric study recruiting healthcare workers from University Hospital Essen 316 1.6 Korth et al. (2020)
Journal of Clinical Virology
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104437
Iran Population-based cross-sectional study with randomly selected participants from the general population and a high-risk population across 18 cities in 17 Iranian provinces 3530 (general population)
5372 (high-risk population)
17.1 (14.6, 19.5) general population
20.0 (18.5, 21.7) high-risk population
Poustchi et al. (2021)
Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30858-6
Guilan Province
Iran
Population-based cluster random sampling through phone call invitations 552 (196 households) 0.22 (0.19, 0.26) unadjusted
0.33 (0.28, 0.39) adjusted for imperfect testing
0.21 (0.14, 0.29) adjusted by population weights
Shakiba et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244
Kobe City
Japan
Cross-sectional study on hospital outpatients 1000 3.3 (2.3, 4.6) Doi et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079822
Spain Two-stage random sampling of households stratified by province and municipality size 61,075 (point-of-care test)
51,958 (immunoassay)
35,883 (households)
5.0 (4.7, 5.4) point-of-care test
4.6 (4.3, 5.0) immunoassay
Pollán et al. (2020)
The Lancet
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5
Sweden (9 regions) Consecutive weekly region-specific surveys 1200 (per week) 7.3 Stockholm
4.2 Skåne
3.7 Västra Götaland
Public Health Agency Sweden (2020)
url: https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2020/maj/forsta-resultaten-fran-pagaende-undersokning-av-antikroppar-for-covid-19-virus/
Geneva
Switzerland
Series of 5 consecutive weekly serosurveys among randomly selected participants from a previous population-representative survey, and their household members aged 5 years and older 2766 (1339 households; 341, 469, 577, 604 and 775 samples respectively in weeks 1–5.) 4.8 (2.4, 8.0) week 1
8.5 (5.9, 11.4) week 2
10.9 (7.9, 14.4) week 3
6.6 (4.3, 9.4) week 4
10.8 (8.2, 13.9) week 5
Stringhini et al. (2020)
The Lancet
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31304-0
UK Cross-sectional study of randomly selected households from strictly-Orthodox Jewish community 1242 (343 households) 64.3 (61.6, 67.0) overall
68.8 (64.9, 72.5) men
59.7 (55.8, 63.5) women
Gaskell et al. (2021)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.01.21250839
USA Cross-sectional study of respondents of all ages from 4 regional and 1 nationwide seroprevalence surveys, and community serosurvey data from randomly selected members of the general population 95,768 14.3 (IQR: 11.6, 18.5) Angulo et al. (2021)
JAMA Network Open
https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.33706
LA County, California
USA
Invited enrollment, based on demographic match and geographical proximity to the testing centers 863 (out of 1952 invited) 4.06 (2.84, 5.60) unadjusted
4.34 (2.76, 6.07) adjusted for imperfect testing
Sood et al. (2020)
JAMA
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.8279
New York State
USA
Convenience sampling of New Yorkers attending 99 grocery stores across 26 counties, containing 87.3% of the state's population, located all across the state 15,101 14.0 (13.3, 14.7) overall
22.7 (21.5, 24.0) New York City
Rosenberg et al. (2020)
Annals of Epidemiology
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.06.004
San Francisco Bay Area
USA
Cohort-based recruitment of non-COVID patients and blood donors 387 (non-COVID patients)
1000 (blood donors)
0.26 (0.00, 0.76) non-COVID patients
0.10 (0.00, 0.56) blood donors
Ng et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.19.20107482
Santa Clara County, California
USA
Ad-based recruitment, matched on geographic location and demographics 3330 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) unadjusted
1.2 (0.7, 1.8) adjusted for imperfect testing
2.8 (1.3, 4.7) adjusted for county demographics
Bendavid et al. (2020)
medRxiv
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463