Emotion classification and rating patterns for each expressed emotion. (a) The main diagonal represents ‘correct’ emotion classification. The most common confusion is between achievement and surprise. Interestingly, this confusion is not perfectly symmetrical, as surprise, when misclassified, is as likely to be categorized as achievement or fear. (b) Average ratings on matching scales are higher than ratings on other scales. Scores on scales of matching valence are depicted in the upper left corner (negative) and the lower right corner (positive). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. Ach Achievement, Ang anger, Ple pleasure, Sur surprise. *p < 0.05. ***p < 0.001. Figure created with R version 4.0.335.