Experimental paradigm. Schematic of one experimental trial in each of the three tasks, the emotion categorization task (Experiment 1), the emotion rating task (Experiment 2), and the dimensional rating task (Experiment 3). The total session consisted of one practice block (4 trials) and ten experimental blocks (48 trials each), followed by a short questionnaire on sociodemographic information. All rating scales were end-to-end labeled 7-point Likert scales. The emotion labels were presented in random order across but fixed order within participants.