Table 3 Number of mislabeled images that showed abnormalities among the 100 most valuable and 100 least valuable chest X-ray images.

From: Data valuation for medical imaging using Shapley value and application to a large-scale chest X-ray dataset

  22 high value images (mislabeled as pneumonia) 13 low value images (mislabeled as pneumonia) 52 low value images (mislabeled as no pneumonia) p valuea
# Images with abnormalities 22 2 50 1.93e-13
  1. All high value images that were mislabeled as pneumonia showed abnormalities to certain degrees. In contrast, only 2 out of 13 low value images that were mislabeled as pneumonia showed abnormalities. Moreover, 50 out of 52 low value images that were mislabeled as no pneumonia showed abnormal opacity.
  2. ap value computed using \(\chi^{2}\) test.