Key records of climate and glacier variability in the circumpolar fringe zone including (from above) a compilation of glacier advances for New Zealand (NZ)28, Patagonia in South America26,30 and data from South Georgia (in this paper). The second panel from the top shows the variability of Hodges Glacier based on the sediment record from Gull Lake (this paper). The third panel shows glacier variability at the Antarctic Peninsula, Palmer Deep29. Note that the MS values are reversed for both Hodges Glacier and Palmer Deep. The fourth panel shows the temperature based on an ice core from the James Ross Ice Cap (47), and the last panel from the top shows the temperature as recorded in West Antarctica33.