Table 2 Comparison of the characteristics of patients without chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) or with CPSP 12 months (M12) after otorhinolaryngological (ORL) surgery.

From: A prospective cohort register-based study of chronic postsurgical pain and long-term use of pain medication after otorhinolaryngological surgery

All patients No CPSP CPSP p*
N N
All 168 18  
Gender 0.935
 Male 101 11
 Female 67 7
Surgical group 0.113
 Ear 28 1
 Paranasal sinus 20 4
 Nose 45 2
 Oral cavity 5 0
 Larynx 15 1
 Pharynx 26 3
 Esophagus 2 0
 Salivary glands 11 5
 Neck and skin 13 2
 Thyroid 3 0
OPS codes 0.336
 1–40 to 1–58 10 1
 1–61 to 1–69 12 2
 5–01 to 5–05 2 1
 5–06 to 5–07 5 0
 5–18 to 5–20 30 1
 5–21 to 5–22 63 5
 5–23 to 5–28 25 4
 5–29 to 5–31 10 1
 5–40 to 5–41 5 2
 5–42 to 5–54 2 0
 5–16, 5–77 1 1
 5–85, 5–89 to 5–92 3 0
Side of surgery 0.588
 Bilateral 96 8
Left 36 5
 Right 36 5
Major surgical complications NA
 Yes 0 0
 No 168 18
Charlson comorbidity index 0.915
  0 95 12
 1 41 4
 2 16 1
 3 8 1
 4 7 0
 5 1 0
ASA status 0.116
 I 45 1
 II 94 14
 III 29 3
Revision surgery 0.783
 Yes 7 1
 No 161 17
Chronic pain before surgery 0.007
 Yes 36 9
 No 132 9
Pain medication before surgery 0.537
 Yes 36 5
 No 132 13
Opioids before surgery 0.085
 Yes 5 2
 No 163 16
Perioperative antibiotics 0.820
 Yes 98 11
 No 70 7
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Age, years 50.8 ± 17.3 57.2 ± 13.9 0.129
Duration of surgery, min 62.5 ± 51.2 85.2 ± 64.9 0.094
Pain at activity (NRS) at D1 2.5 ± 2.2 4.3 ± 2.2 0.001
Maximal pain (NRS) at D1 3.3 ± 2.6 4.7 ± 2.4 0.027
Minimal pain (NRS) at D1 1.0 ± 1.4 2.4 ± 1.8 < 0.001
Satisfaction with pain therapy (NRS) at D1 8.4 ± 2.6 7.8 ± 2.4 0.368
If chronic pain before surgery, intensity (NRS) D1 5.3 ± 2.2 5.9 ± 2.3 0.437
Maximal pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 1.5 5.2 ± 1.7 < 0.001
Minimal pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.4 2.1 ± 1.5 < 0.001
Average pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.5 4.2 ± 1.2 < 0.001
Actual pain (NRS) at M6 0.1 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 2.0 < 0.001
Maximal pain (NRS) at M12 0.2 ± 0.7 4.9 ± 1.7 < 0.001
Minimal pain (NRS) at M12 0.1 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 1.9 < 0.001
Average pain (NRS) at M12 0.1 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 1.1 < 0.001
Actual pain (NRS) at M12 0.1 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 0.5 < 0.001
Physical interference (NRS) at M12 < 0.001
 General activity 0.1 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 2.4 < 0.001
 Walking ability 0.0 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 2.9 < 0.001
 Work 0.1 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Affective interference (NRS) at M12
 Mood 0.1 ± 0.8 3.2 ± 2.5 < 0.001
 Enjoyment of life 0.2 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 2.9 < 0.001
 Relations with other persons 0.1 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 2.5 < 0.001
Sleep interference (NRS) at M12 0.2 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 3.6 < 0.001
  1. NRS = numeric rating scale. *Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare ordinal and nominal data of patients without CPSP and with CPSP. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney-U-test was used to compare metric data.
  2. Bold values are statistically significant for p < 0.05.